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SfjQ P- Series 1943, No. 1 



Issued December 1958 





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Wibaux County 



Montana 




OUR SOIL * OUR STRENGTH 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
[S Soil Conservation Service 
In cooperation with 
MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



HOW TO USE THE SOIL SURVEY REPORT 



THIS SURVEY of Wibaux County will help 
you plan the kind of farming and ranching 
that will protect your soils and provide good 
yields. It describes the soils; shows their loca- 
tion on a map ; and tells what they will do under 
different kinds of management. 

Find Your Farm or Ranch on the Map 

In using this survey, you start with the soil 
map, which consists of 31 sheets bound in the 
back of this report. These sheets, if laid 
together, make a large photographic map of 
the county as it looks from an airplane. You 
can see fields, roads, rivers, and many other 
landmarks on this map. 

To find your land on the large map, you use 
the index to map sheets. This is a small map 
of the county on which numbered rectangles 
have been drawn to show where each sheet of 
the large map is located. 

When you have found the map sheet for your 
farm or ranch, you will notice that boundaries 
of the soils have been outlined, and that there 
is a symbol for each kind of soil. All areas 
marked with the same symbol are the same kind 
of soil, wherever they appear on the map. 

Suppose you have found an area marked with 
the symbol Mn. You learn the name of the 
soil this symbol represents by looking at the 
map legend. The symbol M n identifies Morton 
silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Learn About the Soils on Your Farm or Ranch 

Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes, and 
all the other soils are described in the section, 
Descriptions of Soils. Soil scientists walked 
over the fields and the grazing land. They dug 
holes and examined surface soils and subsoils; 
measured slopes with a hand level; noted dif- 
ferences in growth of crops, grass, brush, or 
trees; and, in fact, recorded all the things about 
the soils that they believed might affect their 
suitability for farming. 

The scientists talked with people who use 



the soils, studied experimental data, and placed 
each soil in a land capability group according 
to its relative fitness for crops, grazing, forestry, 
or wildlife. 

How the soils differ from each other is dis- 
cussed in the section, Differences in the Soils of 
Wibaux County. If you want to know in 
general about soil management turn to the 
section, Use and Management of Soils, wherein 
the treatment to fit the soils is discussed. 
Yields to be expected from the common crops 
are shown in table 1. 

A rancher can turn to the section, Manage- 
ment of Rangeland, which describes range sites 
and suggests how to judge range condition. A 
brief discussion on woodland management is 
also included in the report. 

If you want to know how soils are formed and 
classified, turn to the section, Formation and 
Classification of Wibaux County Soils. In the 
section, Soil Associations, a general soil map 
of the county is given, and the soil areas shown 
on it are described. 

Make a Farm or Ranch Plan 

For the soils on your farm or ranch, compare 
your yields and practices with those given in 
this report. Look at 3<our fields and grazing 
lands for signs of runoff and erosion. Then de- 
cide whether or not you need to change your 
methods. The choice, of course, must be yours. 
This survey will aid you in planning new 
methods, but it is not a plan of management for 
your farm or any other farm in the county. 

If you find that you need help in farm or ranch 
planning, consult the local technicians of the 
Soil Conservation Service or the county agri- 
cultural agent. Members of the staff of your 
State agricultural experiment station and others 
familiar with farming in your county will also 
be glad to help you. 

Fieldwork for this survey was completed in 
1943. Unless otherwise specifically indicated, 
all statements in the report refer to conditions 
in the county at that time. 



U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1958 



For sale by ibe Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Know your soils and plan their use and management 1 

Examine the soil map 1 

Differences in the soils of Wibaux County 2 

Variations occur within each mapping unit 3 

Slopes and erosion hazards 3 

Organic-matter content, thickness, and structure of the 

surface layer 3 

The way water and air penetrate the subsoil 3 

Workability of soils -A 

Soil depth 4 

The treatment should fit the soil 4 

Use and management of soils 4 

Compare present use with suggested use 4 

Capability groups of soils 4 

Capability units 5 

IIe-1 5 

IIIe-1 5 

IIIe-2 5 

IIIe-3 6 

IIIe-4 6 

IVe-1 6 

IVs-1 6 

VIe-1 6 

VIe-2 6 

VIe-3 6 

VIw-1 6 

VIs-1 6 

VIs-2 6 

VIIs-1 6 

VIIs-2 7 

VIIIs-1 7 

Management of cropland and seeded pastures 7 

Credit 7 

Fallowing 7 

Natural fertility 7 

Commercial fertilizers 7 

Burning stubble and mulch 7 

Building and maintaining good soil structure 8 

Climate and other hazards 8 

Cropping systems 8 

How and where soil erosion occurs 8 

Erosion control practices 9 

Seeding grass 10 

Hay and pasture 10 

Past history of the county as it affects agriculture 10 

Est imated yields 11 

.Management of rangeland 11 

Know your grasses and other plants 11 

Range site and condition 11 

How to plan range use 14 

Principles of range management 14 

Management of woodlands 15 

Natural woodlands 15 

Woodland and windbreak plantings 15 

Planting sites 15 

Planting site 1 15 

Planting site 2 16 

Planting site 3 16 

Wildlife 16 

Soil associations 17 

Rhoades-Flasher-Cushman 17 

Pierre-Lismas-Rhoades-Moline 17 

Bad lands-Bain ville-Flasher-Midway 17 

Moreau-. Mid way-Regent 17 

Farland-Savage-Harlem 17 

Flasher- Vebar 18 

Bainville-Chama-Flasher 18 

Bainville- Wibaux-Chama 18 

Morton- Arnegard-Chama 18 



Soil associations — Continued Page 

Wibaux- Morton-Chama-Bai n ville-Searing 18 

Chama-Morton-Bainville-Flasher is 

Descriptions of soils 18 

Alluvial land 18 

Alluvial land 18 

Arnegard series I * * 

Arnegard silt loam, () to 2 pen-mi slopes 20 

Arnegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes 20 

Badlands 20 

Badlands 20 

Bainville series 20 

Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes 20 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 permit slopes 21 

Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes 2! 

Bainville-Chama complex 21 

Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent slopes 21 

Bainville-Flasher complex 21 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent slopes.- 21 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 21 

Bainville- Wibaux complex 21 

Bainville- Wibaux complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes 21 

Chama series 22 

Chama silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 22 

Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes 22 

Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes 22 

Chama-Bainville complex 22 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes 22 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent slopes 22 

Cherry series 23 

Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 23 

Cherry silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes 23 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes. 23 

Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes 23 

Cheyenne series 23 

Cheyenne loam, to 5 percent slopes 24 

Cushman series 24 

Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes 24 

Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes 24 

Farland series 24 

Farland silt loam, to 3 percenl slopes 25 

Farland-Harlem complex 25 

Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 persent slopes 25 

Flasher series 25 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes 25 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 10 to 14 percent slopes. . 25 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes.. 25 

Glendive series 25 

Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 20 

Grail series 26 

Grail silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 26 

Grail silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 26 

Gravelly terrace remnants 26 

Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes 2(i 

Lismas clay-Shale outcrop complex 27 

Lismas clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 00 percent slopes. _ 27 

McKetizic-Hoven complex .. 27 

McKenzie-IIovcn silty clays, to 1 percent slopes 27 

Midway- Moreau complex 27 

Midway- Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent slopes _'s 

Midway-Moreau complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes 28 

Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes 28 

Midway-Regent complex 2s 

Midway-Regenl silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent slopes 28 

Midway-Regent silt} - clay loams, 8 to 11 percent slope- _ 28 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 percent slopes. 29 

Moline series 29 

Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 29 

Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 29 

I 



II 



Descriptions of soils — Continued Page 

Morton series 29 

Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 29 

Morton-Arnegard complex 30 

Morton- Arnegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 30 

Morton-Chama complex 30 

Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes 30 

Pierre-Lismas complex 30 

Pierre-Lismas clays, 15 to 40 percent slopes 30 

Regent series 30 

Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 31 

Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 31 

Regent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes 31 

Rhoades series 31 

Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 31 

Rhoades-Moline complex 31 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes 31 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes 31 

Rockland-Bainville complex 32 

Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes 32 

Rockland-Flasher complex 32 

Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes 32 

Savage series 32 

Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 32 

Sa \ age- Wade complex 32 

Savage- Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes 33 

Searing series 33 

Searing loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes 33 

Valentine series 33 

Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent slopes 33 

Vebar series 33 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 34 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes 34 



Descriptions of soils — Continued Page 

Vebar-Flasher complex 34 

Vebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes 34 

Vebar-Timmer complex 34 

Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes.., 35 

Wade series 35 

Wade silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes 35 

Wibaux series 35 

Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes 35 

Williams series 35 

Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 36 

Williams silt loam, 6 to 14 percent slopes 36 

Zahl series 36 

Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes 36 

Formation and classification of Wibaux County soils 36 

Principal factors of soil formation 38 

Human influences on soils 40 

How the soil profile develops 40 

Wibaux County soils related to other areas 40 

Classification of soils into great soil groups 40 

Soil survey methods and definitions 41 

General features of Wibaux County 42 

Climate 42 

Transportation 43 

Physiography and drainage 43 

Settlement 43 

Agriculture 43 

Land use and types of farms 43 

Livestock 44 

Crops 44 



Series 1943, No. 1 



Issued December 1958 



SOIL SURVEY OF WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 

BY R. C. McCONNELL, W. A. BUCHANAN, AND D. R. CAWLFIELD, SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE. UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, AND W. C. BOURNE, MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

CORRELATION BY B. H. WILLIAMS, SOIL CONSERATION SERVICE 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN COOPERATION WITH THE MONTANA AGRICULTURAL 

EXPERIMENT STATION 



Know Your Soils and Plan Their 
Use and Management 

This report is about the soils of Wibaux County, which 
is in eastern Montana and has an area of 568,960 acres. 
The North Dakota State line is on its eastern border 
(fig. 1). The county is bordered on the south by Fallon 




Figure 1. — Location of Wibaux County in Montana. 

County, on the west by Prairie and Dawson Counties, 
and on the north by Richland County. The Yellowstone 
River forms the northwest corner boundary. 

This is mainly an agricultural count}- — 159,919 acres 
were used for crops and 365,605 acres were pastured in 
1954. Wheat is the main cash crop. Permanent pasture 
would be a better use for much of the acreage in cultivated 
crops. Much of the cropland is subject to wind and water 
erosion. Like other northern Great Plains areas, the 
county has periods of drought. There are good years, or 
years of ample moisture, when crops may be above aver- 
age, and some dry years when crops are produced only on 
the best sites. 

Each soil mapped in the county needs to be used dif- 
ferently from most of the others if it is to give the best 
returns. What crops are best adapted to each soil? 
What treatment does each soil need? What is the erosion 



problem? How much will each soil produce? This 
report attempts to answer these and other questions for 
the farmers, ranchers, and landowners of Wibaux County. 
Farmers and ranchers in the county organized the 
Wibaux Soil Conservation District in 1939. The Dis- 
trict helps farmers and ranchers get technical assistance 
from the United States Department of Agriculture on 
their soil and water conservation work. This survey of 
the soils in the county is part of that technical help. 



Examine the Soil Map 

Symbols and names oj tin soil. - The name and letter 
symbol of each soil mapped in Wibaux County is listed 
in the map legend. The letter symbol, for example, Al> 
or M n, refers to the different soil units on the map. Each 
soil mapping unit is described in the section. Descriptions 
of Soils. 

One of the first things to see in soils is their shape or 
form. Soils have area and thickness and occupy parts of 
the landscape. Figure 2 shows the shape of some soil 
bodies in the landscape. It is these bodies, or shapes, 
that are mapped in detail on the soil map. 



.-.-■$■ 






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Figure 2. — Bodies of soil in a landscape. Boundary lines have. been 
drawn around some soils to show their shape and pattern. 

i 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



How soils are named. — Each soil has a name that usually 
consists of three parts. The first part is taken from the 
place near which the soil series, or group of soils of a 
certain kind, was first mapped. The next part identifies 
the texture of the surface soil, such as loam or silt loam. 
The texture of the surface layer indicates the soil type. 
Finally, soil types are divided into phases, mainly on the 
hasis of differences in slope or in other characteristics that 
affect their use for agriculture. For example, Morton 
silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes, is a slope phase of the silt 
loam type and is in the Morton series. The percentage 
of slope is the number of feet the land rises or falls in a 
distance of 100 feet. Slope phases suggest, among other 
things, where the hazards of erosion can be expected. 



Differences in the Soils of Wibaux County 

Soil can be defined briefly as a place where plants grow. 
How well the plant grows depends on the chemical and 
physical makeup of all layers of soil as deep as plant roots 
go, commonly 4 to 6 feet. Because we need to know 
what the soil is like in order to tell what it needs and 
how it can be used, the entire soil profile to a depth of 
several feet should be studied. 

Dig a pit or look at a fresh road cut, and you can see 
layers differing from each other. If the pit or road cut 
is in Morton silt loam, the surface soil, about 8 inches 
thick, is dark colored, contains organic matter, and is 
made up of a mass of porous particles about the size of 
crumbs. The crumb structure indicates good tilth and 
fertility. This surface layer is called the A horizon. 
The next layer, extending from a depth of about 8 to 16 
inches, has nearly the same color but is made up of small 
uneven blocks 1 to 3 inches across and about 8 inches 
thick. This is the B horizon, or subsoil. There may be 
upper subsoil and lower subsoil in some soils. Usually, 
below about 16 inches the subsoil is lighter in color. 
Whitish streaks and spots of lime and other salts fre- 
quently occur in this layer. It is the layer of lime accumu- 
lation and is less weathered than the layers above. It 
contains lime and possibly other calcium compounds. 
Tin- is the C ca layer. 

Below about 28 inches, the layers in Morton silt loam 
consist of weathered yellow and gray silty soft shale or 
sandstone. This is the main C horizon, or soil parent 
material. 

Soil is formed from parent material that has been 
weathered in the climate of the area and changed by the 
vegetation over a long period. A soil body has width, 
length, and thickness, and the different soils form pat- 
terns in the landscape. The whole soil profile of Morton 
silt loam is the one that is normal for a soil in Wibaux 
Counfrj that has developed on gentle slopes from soft 
silty shales. It is a soil that water, air, and roots can 
penetrate easily. Figure 3 illustrates the usual layers, or 
horizons, in Morton soils. 

Each soil has one or more features that make it different 
from all the others. If a hole or pit is dug in Bainville 
sill loam, the layers, or horizons, will be different from 
those in Morton silt loam. The surface layer, or A 



nches 




30- 



40- 







-c 



ca 



50 

Figure 3. Solid horizons, or layers, in Morion sill loam. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. .MONTANA 



horizon, is only about 4 inches thick in the Bainville 
sample. The subsoil, extending from a depth of 4 to 12 
inches, is yellowish brown and has no definite structure. 
Below this layer are beds of shale and sandstone. Bain- 
ville soil will act differently from Morton soil in the way 
it supplies nutrients, air, and moisture to plant roots. 
Bainville soils frequently occur on steep slopes, ridges, 
and bare knobs. 



Variations occur within each mapping unit 

All the soil in a given mapping unit may not be exactly 
alike. Usually, the thickness of the individual layers 
differs slightly from place to place. Many boundaries 
between soil units are not sharp, and soils merge one with 
another. The boundaries show major differences in their 
laj'ers, or horizon makeup, and in degree of slope. The 
important variations in each mapping unit are discussed 
in the section, Descriptions of Soils. How some of the 
Wibaux County soils occur in relation to each other is 
shown in figure 4. 



little soil forms is blown or washed away. In draws and 
streams the deposits move 1 about loo often to support 
much vegetation. 



Organic-matter content, thickness, and 
structure of the surface layer 

It is essential to maintain the organic matter, thick- 
ness, and favorable structure of the surface layer. This 
can be done by good management practices, such as 
adding organic matter or returning the sod cover. Or- 
ganic matter is the main source and storehouse for most 
plant nutrients, including nitrogen. It affects the way 
soil holds moisture, seedbed preparation, and the air 
supply in the soil. Structure is one of the important 
factors in fertility. 

The surface layer of the soils better suited to farming is 
high in organic matter, is about 6 to 8 inches thick, and 
has a crumb structure. The Morton soils have this 
kind of surface layer. Crumb structure means that the 
soil particles are shaped like crumbs and are porous. 




Figure 4. — How the soils common in Wibaux County occur in relation to each other. The percentage of slope is shown under the soil name. 



Slopes and erosion hazards 

As a rule, the hazards of water erosion are greater on 
the steeper slopes. Sheet and rill erosion are likely to 
occur on slopes stronger than 3 percent. Gully erosion 
can take place wherever water collects and runs downslope. 

The more sandy the soil is, the more likely it is to drift 
and blow away. Most cultivated soils are subject to 
wind erosion. In Wibaux County the control of erosion 
caused by wind and water is a major problem. 

Erosion on the range or pasture is less likely to occur 
if t he native sod is in good to excellent condition. Pastures 
erode where native grasses are sparse or are weak because 
they were grazed too closely. In these places, plants 
seem to be elevated because the soil has been washed or 
blown away from their base. These plants usually have 
limited root systems. Strong widespread root systems 
anchor the soil and prevent erosion. 

Normal, or geologic, erosion takes place on badland 
areas, rock outcrops, and riverwash sandbars. These 
areas are so steep, rocky, or exposed to water that what 



The soils with such structure resist erosion and make good 
seedbeds. Some of the heavier soils, such as Grail silty 
clay loam, have granular structure in the surface layer. 
Granular structure means that the soil particles are 
somewhat rounded and are relatively nonporous. The 
granules act much like crumbs. 



The way water and air penetrate the subsoil 

Subsoil layers act as a storage place for moisture and 
as a reservoir for plant nutrients. Air and water should 
move readily through these layers. Permeability, which 
is the ability to let water and air penetrate, depends on 
the texture and structure of these subsoil layers. For 
instance. Morton and Arnegard soils have moderate 
permeability, whereas Midway and Moreau soils have 
slow permeability. Soils like the Moline or Wade have 
slow to very slow permeability. Sandy soils such as the 
Vebar and Valentine have moderately rapid and rapid 
permeability. There is no practical way to alter the 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 194 3, NO. 1 



texture of agricultural soils, but their structure and iug management are given in tabular form. Some of the 
permeability can be changed to some degree by cropping practices that are basic to good farming on most of the 
systems, cultivation, and subsoiling. soils are outlined. Range and woodland management 

are also discussed in this section. 



Workability of soils 

The ease or difficulty of cultivation depends on many 
factors, such as slope, erosion, texture, structure, and 
amount of organic matter in the surface layers. Poor 
workability, as occurs in Wade soils, is related to the 
presence of alkali and a dense claypan. Steep slopes 
are costly to till. Tillage and seedbed preparation are 
easy in soils that have surface layers with crumb or 
granular structure. Cloddy structure helps to keep 
down wind erosion. Some heavy soils benefit by fall 
plowing. 

Intensive cultivation over a long time by implements 
that crush, pulverize, and pack the soil has an adverse 
effect on tilth. For example, crumb structure tends to 
break down to single grain or massive structure. When 
this happens, a soil that was formerly friable and easy to 
work becomes compact. 



Soil depth 

Soils vary in depth to parent materials. Total soil 
depth affects moisture storage and root penetration. 
In the Wibaux series, baked shale, or scoria, occurs close 
to the surface. The Flasher series has sandstone layers 
at shallow depths. Most of the better farming soils on 
slopes have soft silt y or clayey shales a few feet below the 
surface. A few soils, such as the Cheyenne and Gravelly 
terrace remnants, have gravelly silt substrata. Soils 
with clay shale parent material, such as Pierre and 
Lismas soils, have greatly restricted water and root 
penetration. 



The treatment should fit the soil 

The special makeup of each soil determines how plants 
grow. Although many things, such as texture and sub- 
surface features, are fixed, the surface soil can be protected 
and improved by using farming practices that will main- 
lain the content of organic matter and the favorable 
crumb or granular structure. Methods to control wind 
and water erosion are known, and ways to help maintain 
a high content of organic matter and the supply of nitrogen 
and other plant nutrients arc being tested. The soils 
of Wibaux County are young in years of use and are 
high in nutrients. After long use, the supply of sub- 
stances plants need may be depleted; yields then decline, 
and erosion increases. 

Range and pasture areas covered by good to excellent 
etation are protected from erosion. The cover also 
protects the soils during droughts; then when normal 
moisture prevails, yields are high again. 



Use and Management of Soils 

Some suggestions for use and management of groups of 
similar soils are given in this section. These groups arc 
called capability units. Estimated yields under prevail- 



Compare Present Use With Suggested Use 

Compare the way soils of the county are used now with 
the suggestions given for each capability unit in the pages 
that follow. The present use of each soil is mentioned 
in the section, Descriptions of Soils. 

The suggestions for use must be interpreted with 
judgment. A soil cannot always be treated alone. It 
usually occurs in close association with other soils having 
different features. These soils are often farmed together. 
Some soils, for example, occupy steep slopes and are not 
suited to cultivation because of the risk of erosion. 
Nevertheless, some parts of these steep soils are farmed 
because they occur within areas of good cropland. 

Not all soils that need stripcropping or contour strip- 
cropping will receive these practices. The size of the 
fields, the lay of the land, and other features may prohibit 
these practices. On some fields only stubble-mulch 
tillage can be used to control erosion. 

Obviously, the practices suggested for land use, kinds 
of crops, and control of erosion must be adjusted to the 
individual farm. Also to be considered is the way the 
soil has been cropped in the past, its future potential, and 
the nature of the soil itself. 



Capability Groups of Soils 

The soils of the county have been grouped in units 
within capability classes and subclasses. This is part of a 
nationwide system of capability grouping, hi which there 
are eight land-capability classes, up to four subclasses, 
and units that are groups of similar soils within each class 
and subclass. 

The eight general classes are based on the degree that 
natural features of each soil limit its use or cause risk of 
damage if it is used for crops, grazing, woodland, or 
wildlife. A soil is placed in one of the eight classes after 
study of the uses that can be made of it, the risks of erosion 
or other damage when it is used, and the need for practices 
to keep it suitable for use, to control erosion, and to 
maintain yields. 

In classes I, II, and III are soils that are suitable for 
annual or periodic cultivation for annual or short-lived 
crops. Class I soils (none in Wibaux County) are those 
that have the widest range of use and the least risk of 
damage. They are level or nearly level, productive, well 
drained, and easy to work. They can be cultivated with 
practically no risk of erosion and will remain productive 
if managed with normal care. 

( 'lass 1 1 soils can be cultivated regularly, but they do not 
have quite so wide a range of suitability as class 1 soils, or 
they need more protection. Some class II soils are 
gently sloping and consequently need moderate care to 
prevent erosion; others may be slightly droughty or 
slightly wet, or somewhat limited in depth. 

('lass Til soils can be cropped regularly but have a 
narrower range of use and need still more careful manage- 
ment . 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



In class IV arc soils that should be cultivated only 
occasionally or only under very careful management. 

In classes V, VI, and VII are soils that as a rule should 
not be cultivated for annual or short-lived crops but can 
be used for pasture, for range, or for woodland, ('lass V 
soils (none in Wibaux County) are nearly level or gently 
sloping hut are droughty, wet, low in fertility, or otherwise 
unsuitable for cultivation. 

('lass VI soils are not suitable for crops because they 
are steep or droughty or otherwise limited, but they give 
fair yields of forage or forest products. Some soils in class 
VI can, without damage, he cultivated enough so that 
fruit trees or forest trees can be set out or pasture plants 
seeded. 

Class VII soils provide only poor to fair yields of forage 
or forest products. 

In class VIII are soils that have practically no agri- 
cultural use. Some of them have value as watersheds, 
wildlife habitats, or scenery. 

The degree of limitation is about the same for the soils 
in any one capability class, but the kind of limitation may 
be different. Subclasses are used to show the main kind of 
limitation in classes II through VIII. There can be as 
many as four subclasses, each identified by a letter follow- 
ing the capability class number. The letter "e" indicates 
that the risk of erosion is what chiefly limits the uses of the 
soil; the letter "w" is used if the soil is too wet for general 
use and needs water control; the letter "s" shows that the 
soil is shallow, droughty, or unusually low in fertility; 
and the letter "c" is used to indicate that the climate is 
so hazardous that it limits uses of the soil. 

Capability units are groups of similar soils within each 
class and subclass that have similar management require- 
ments. An example is capability unit lie— 1. 

Capability classes, subclasses, and units in Wibaux 
County follow. 

Class II. — Soils that can be used for tilled crops under 

moderate risks of erosion or other moderate limitations. 

[Ie-1: Gently sloping, generally well drained soils. 

( lass III. — Soils that can be used for tilled crops under 

severe risks of erosion if not protected or that have 

other severe limitations. 

[IIe-1 : Moderately sloping soils. 

IIIe-2: Soils moderately limited in water-holding 

capacity by coarse texture below surface soil. 
IIIe-3: Sandy soils subject to severe risk of wind 

erosion. 
IIIe-4: Deep friable soils in dry part of county. 
Class IV. — Soils having limitations that restrict severely 
I he choice of crops or of cropping system or soils that 
require very careful management if cultivated. 
IVc 1 : Moderately steep soils. 
IVs-I : ( 'laypan soils. 
Class VI. — Soils generally better suited to pasture, range. 
woodland, or wildlife than to cultivation, and only 
moderately limited for one or more of those uses. 
VIe-1 : Silt v, steep soils of the uplands. 
VIe-2: Sands highly subject to wind erosion. 
Vie-:!: Thin breaks and shallow soils of steep 

uplands. 
VTw— 1: Overflow land, narrow irregular areas along 

stream channels. 
Vis— 1: Saline and wet flats. 



Vis 2: Saline uplands and cla\pan soils with slick 
spots, 
('lass VII.- Soils severely limited for grazing or for wood- 
land use. 

VI Is 1: Very shallow steep soils with much rock 

outcrop. 
VIIs-2: Very steep shale and clay soils with much 
shale outcrop. 
('lass VIII. — Soils not suitable for crops, grazing, or 
trees; they may be useful for wildlife, recreation, or 
water supply. 

VIIIs-1: Badlands. 



Capability units 

A brief description of each capability unit, a list of 
the soils in the unit, and some suggestions for use and 
management are given in this section. 

lie -1 : Gently sloping, generally well drained soils.— 
These are deep, gently sloping or nearly level, friable 
soils of the terraces, valley slopes, and uplands. The} 
are good for crops but are subject to some risk of wind 
erosion. The soils are: 

Arnegard sill loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Farland silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Farland-Harlem complex, () to 3 percent slopes. 
Grail silly clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Morton-Amegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Regenl silly clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Savage-Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes. 

These soils can be used for a grain-fallow cropping 
system if they are protected by strip farming and stubble- 
mulch tillage. Slopes are gentle enough that contour 
strip farming is not needed. 

All but two of the soils can be used for a grain-corn 
system, or for alfalfa, sweetclover, wheatgrasses, brome- 
grass, or native range grasses. Cherry silt loam, to 3 
percent slopes, is not so suitable for alfalfa as the other 
soils, and the Savage-Wade complex, to :! percent slopes, 
is not suitable for the grain-corn system or for alfalfa. 

IIIe-1: Moderately sloping soils. — These are dee]) or 
moderately deep friable soils of the uplands. They are 
good to fair for crops but are subject to water and wind 
erosion and need to be protected. The soils are: 

Arnegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Chama silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Cherry sill loam, l to 9 percent slopes. 
Grail silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Searing loam. 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

Grain-fallow and grain-corn are suitable cropping 
systems. Strip tanning and stubble-mulch tillage are 
needed to control erosion. On most slopes strips should 
be on the contour. All these soils are suitable for sweet- 
clover, wheatgrasses, bromegrass, and native range 
grasses. 

Hie 2: Soils moderately limited in water-holding 
capacity by coarse texture below surface soil. These are 
dee]) or moderately dee]) loamy soils. The Cheyenne soil 
is on benches; the Glendive is mostly on slopes of allu\ ml 



6 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



fans bordering bottom lands. Coarse subsoil limits the 
water-holding capacity. The soils of this capability unit 
are good or fair for crops and have a moderate risk of 
wind erosion. The soils are: 

Cheyenne loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Glendive fine sand}- loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes. 

The Cheyenne soil is suitable for the grain-fallow crop- 
ping system if farmed in strips and with stubble-mulch 
tillage. Both soils are good for the grain-corn system and 
for sweetclover, wheatgrasses, bromegrass, or native 
range grasses. The Glendive soil is suitable for alfalfa, 
and fallow is not needed for grain farming on it. 

IIIe-3: Sandy soils subject to severe risk of wind 
erosion. — These are deep sandy soils of the nearly level 
and sloping uplands. Risk of blowing is severe. They 
are good to fan - for crops if wind erosion can be controlled. 
The soils are: 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Yebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes. 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes. 

Grain-fallow and grain-corn are suitable cropping 
systems, if they are practiced with strip farming and 
stubble-mulch tillage. Strips on the sloping soils should 
be on the contour. Sweetclover, wheatgrasses, brome- 
grass, or native range grasses are suited to these soils. 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes, are 
suitable for alfalfa. 

IIIe-4: Deep, friable soils in dry part of county. — 
These deep, nearly level to moderately sloping soils are in 
the southwestern part of the county. Effective rainfall 
there is less than in other parts of the county, and the risk 
of both wind and water erosion is moderate or severe. 
The soils are good or fair for crops. They are : 

Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes. 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

The grain-fallow cropping system is suitable if strip 
farming and stubble-mulch tillage are practiced. Strips 
on 4 to 7 percent slopes should be on the contour. The 
soils are suitable for sweetclover, wheatgrasses, brome- 
grass, and native range grasses. 

IVe-1: Moderately steep soils. — These soils of the 
uplands are shallow or moderately deep over sandstone, 
siltstone, shale, or clayey shale. The risk of water erosion 
is severe, and the soils are subject to wind erosion. They 
are fair to poor for crops. The soils are: 

Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes. 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Midway- Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Midway-Recent silty clay loams, S to 11 percent slopes. 
Midway-Recent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 percent slopes. 
Recent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
\ ebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
Williams .-ill loam, to 14 percent slopes. 

Many of these soils occupy small areas within larger 
bodies of soils in class I II or class II, and they are farmed 
along with the better soils. Strip farming and slubble- 
mulch tillage are needed. Strips should be on the con- 
tour on all hut the most gentle slopes. The soils will he 
better managed and most of them will be more productive 
if they are used for hay or grazing rather than for grain. 
All these soils tire suitable for wheatgrasses, bromegrass, 
and native range grasses. The Flasher soil, the Midway- 



Regent silty clay loams on slopes up to 11 percent, and 
the Regent, Vebar, and Williams soils in this unit are 
also suitable for sweetclover. 

IVs-1 : Claypan soils. — This unit consists of one sod, 
Wade sdty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. The clayey 
texture of the surface soil and the claypan (dense clay) 
subsoil make the soil difficult to work. Water enters the 
soil slowly. This soil is fair to poor for crops. 

The soil of this capability unit can be used for the 
regular grain-fallow cropping system if strip farming and 
stubble-mulch tillage are practiced. It is suitable for 
sweetclover, wheatgrasses, bromegrass. or native range 
grasses. 

VIe-1 : Silty, steep soils of the uplands. — These soils 
are too steep, stony, or shallow for cultivation, but they 
make good ranges. They are in the Silty land range site, 
along with some of the other more farmable silty soils. 
The soils in this unit are: 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 
Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent slopes. 
Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes. 
Midway-Moreau complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 
Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes. 
Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes. 

VIe-2: Sands highly subject to wind erosion. — The one 

soil in this unit is Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent 
slopes. It is suitable only for range but it is good for 
that purpose. It is in the Sands range site. Wind 
erosion is severe wherever the cover is not maintained. 

Vie 3: Thin breaks and shallow soils of steep up- 
lands. — These sods are too steep and erodible to be culti- 
vated. They are good or fair for range. They are in the 
Thin breaks and Shallow land range sites. The soils are: 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Bainville- Wibaux complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes. 
Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes. 

VIw- 1 : Overflow land, narrow irregular areas along 
stream channels. — This soil consists of one miscellaneous 
land type, Alluvial land. It is not suitable for cultivation 
because of the risk of floods and of erosion or deposition 
caused by them. The range site is Overflow land. 

Vis 1: Saline and wet flats. — These soils are too salty 
and wet to be cultivated. They are good for range. 
The range site is Saline lowlands. The soils are: 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes. 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, to 1 percent slopes. 

VIs-2: Saline uplands and claypan soils with slick 

spots. — These soils are too salty for cultivation. Mois- 
ture enters them slowly, and the risk of erosion is high. 
They are fair for range and are in the Panspots range site. 
The soils are: 

Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slope-. 
Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Rhoades-Moline complex, S to 11 percent slopes. 
Khoades- Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes. 

VIIs-1: Very shallow steep soils with much sandstone 
outcrop. These thin rough soils, mostly on sandstone, are 
not suitable for cultivation. They make fair to poor 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



range, 
are: 



The range site is Very shallow Ian 



The soils 



Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes. 
Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes. 

VIIs-2: Very steep shale and clay soils with much shale 
outcrop. — These thin, steep soils on clay or shale are not 
suitable for cultivation. They make poor to very poor 
range. The range site is Shale and clay. The native vege- 
tation includes some juniper. The soils are: 

Lisrnas clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 60 percent slopes. 
Pierre-Lismas clays, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

VHIs 1 : Badlands. — This capability unit contains only 
one land type, Badlands. Vegetation grows only in the 
bottoms of drains, on benches, or on slopes where some 
soil accumulates, and it furnishes only a little grazing. 



Management of Cropland and Seeded Pastures 

Farming and ranching in Wibaux County involve 
mainly the production of feed for livestock, the use of 
pastures and range, and the growing of wheat and other 
cash crops. Cropping systems are designed to utilize the 
land for grazing and to produce grain and roughage for 
winter feed. On farms where growing of cash grain and 
raising of livestock is a combined operation, the most 
productive soils are used for feed crops. Some of the land, 
usually on gentle to moderate slopes, is available for cash 
crops. The steep slopes and hills are used for pasture and 
range. Owing to drought, rust, hail, insects, and other 
hazards, it is often necessary to change the use of the land 
to minimize or to avoid these risks. 

On many farms it will be easy to develop good manage- 
ment for sods. Farms having large areas of Morton, 
Regent, Arnegard, or Farland soils may need little change 
in present practices. On farms with steep slopes and much 
intermingling of soils of different capability, the changes 
are usually complex. On such farms a good soil manage- 
ment system can be planned only after much study of the 
whole farm organization. 



Credit 

The farmers most successful in Wibaux County are 
those who have the largest reserves of feed or credit during 
the drier years. Low yields in the dry years impose a 
financial burden that must be offset by building up re- 
serves in the good years. A plan of credit that would 
take into account the wide fluctuation in yields would 
benefit many farmers. Under the normal credit arrange- 
ment, payments arc the same whether the years are wet or 
dry. Straight cash-grain farmers are affected sooner by 
dry periods than those who combine livestock raising and 
grain farming. 



Fallowing 

If land is left fallow, or free of crops and weeds for some 
time, moisture and nitrates accumulate in the soil to meet 
the needs of the next crop. To eliminate weeds, the land 
is plowed or worked with a one-way disk plow about the 
time the weeds or volunteer wheat start growing. 'Flic 



one-way disk is fast and effective, but it tends to pulverize 
the soil too finely and to bury crop residues too completely. 
The blade, or sweep-type implement is best for later 
cultivation of fallow land. It leaves crop residues on the 
surface. Wide sweeps are preferable — 24 inches or larger. 
Fallow land is exposed to wind and water, so emergenC3 
tillage may be needed. Disking may he needed to check 
soil blowing and to reduce runoff during the next rain. 
Deep tillage can be used to reduce wind and water erosion 
and improve tilth, but for most of the soils, it has not been 
established that this practice is beneficial. Deep tillage 
has had favorable effects on the soils having plowsoles 
and claypans. 



Natural fertility 

The natural fertility of the soils suitable for crops is 
fairly high. Little effort has been made in Wibaux ( 'ounty 
to return plant nutrients to the sod through the use of 
legume crops, barnyard manure, or commercial fertilizers. 
Consequently, the fertility has slightly decreased. The 
serious decrease in fertility in some places is largely the 
result of erosion. Part of the loss of fertility is caused by 
the slow reduction of humus through oxidation in the 
surface soil. The decline in favorable soil structure, 
which also affects fertility, may have been caused by the 
lower humus content or by the packing and pulverizing 
effects of tillage. At some future time, fertilitj* may be 
depleted seriously. The lowered yields will be noticed 
first on the soils having the least natural fertility. 



Commercial fertilizers 

The plant nutrients most lacking in Wibaux County 
are phosphorus and nitrogen. The use of commercial 
fertilizers on dry-farmed areas is of questionable value 
because yields are limited mainly by lack of moisture. 
More local tests should be made to find out what the 
results will be if fertilizer is applied under various soil 
conditions. More information is also needed on the time 
commercial fertilizer should be applied, on the rate and 
amount to be applied, and on the use of manure. You 
can obtain the latest information on fertilizers from the 
technicians of the Soil Conservation Service or from your 
county agent. 



Burning stubble and mulch 

Burning of stubble is unfavorable in the long run. The 
temporary improvement in yields brought about by burn- 
ing is deceptive. If straw is turned under, yields are 
temporarily lowered because bacteria draw large supplies 
of moisture and nitrogen from the soil to decompose the 
straw. In contrast, if the stubble is burned, the bacteria 
use only a small part of the nitrogen in the soil, more 
nitrogen is available for crops, and there is a temporary 
increase in yields, partly because of the better supply of 
nitrogen and partly because better plowing is possible if 
the straw is out of the way. With burning, however, the 
crops remove nitrogen that is not replaced, the necessary 
tillage lowers the content of humus, and soil structure 
deteriorates. Then, yields decline and erosion increases 



s 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943. NO. 



Building and maintaining good soil structure 

Productivity of dry-farmed land in Wibaux County 
can be maintained or improved by practices that favor 
good soil structure and tilth. The natural soil structure 
of the better agricultural soils is very good for plant 
growth. Destruction of the crumb and granular structure 
of the surface layers lowers productivity. 

"When the soil is tilled for a long time aud not enough 
crop residues are left on the surface, the soil is exposed 
and the original crumb or granular structure breaks to 
fine particles or single grains. Such structure is suscep- 
tible to erosion by wind and water. The natural pores 
and channels for entrance of air and water tend to close, 
and the soil becomes baked. 

Continued tillage at the same depth on some loamy and 
sandy loam soils results in a plowsole 1U to 3 inches thick. 
The plowsole is compact, dense, and hard; it checks water 
movement through the soil and the growth of plant roots. 
Subsoiling or plowing at different depths will increase the 
yields on such lands. The cost of this practice should be 
considered, however, in relation to the benefits to be 
obtained. 

In order to have good soil structure and do the neces- 
sary cultivation for seedbeds and crops, implements should 
be used that disturb the natural soil structure as little as 
possible. Suggested implements are the duckfoot culti- 
vator, one-way disk plow, rotary-rod weeder, and blade 
sweeps. Partly cover or turn under the surface sod or 
stubble — a practice called stubble-mulch tillage. Leave 
bits of stubble and clods on the roughened surfaces to 
check soil blowing. Favorable tillage can be maintained 
or renewed in many soils by stubble-mulch tillage or by 
planting the soils to permanent grasses. 

The tilth of heavy soils is improved by fall plowing, as 
freezing and thawing naturally slake or soften the hard 
clods. Fall plowing is hazardous on some soils, however, 
because they have a tendency to blow. In general, the 
heavy soils are less subject to blowing in winter than 
loams and sandy loams. 

Sandy soils are very subject to wind erosion. Their 
natural structure is very weak crumb or single grain, and 
these line particles are moved easily by wind. 

Over the years the productivity of claypan soils is 
increased by tillage. This improvement is brought about 
by the slow breaking up of the claypan aud by spreading 
soil from the areas that have a more loamy surface over 
the pan spots. Claypan soils, such as the Wade, Moline, 
and Rhoades. need intensive stubble-mulch tillage and 
applications of all available crop residues. Straw and 
manure should be spread on the slick-spot area-. 

The most beneficial practices are those that induce the 

most water to enter the soil. Most of the water used by 
plants must be absorbed from the earth. In order to do 
this, their root systems must be extensively developed. 
The total length of the roots of a single plant, such as 
\\ bea i . can he very long. 

In order to tell how much rain enters the soil, consider 
(\) humus content, texture, and pore space; (2) depth 
i" ■■< layer that can limit water penetration; (3) present 
condition of the surface soil and use of the land before 
tillage; (4) moisture content; and (5) duration, intensity, 
and I ime of rainfall. 



Climate and other hazards 

Insufficient moisture during the growing season is the 
primary factor limiting crop production in Wibaux 
County. Other hazards are hot periods during mid- 
summer, high winds, hail, rust, and insects. To cope 
with these problems, one should grow different kinds of 
crops or select improved plant varieties. Better and more 
timely tillage methods should be used. A season that 
promises to be poor for wheat may be favorable for corn. 
Choose crops with low water requirements or those that 
resist drought or mature early. Small grains are early 
maturing, whereas corn, flax, millet, and rye mature later 
and are moderately tolerant of dry spells. 

Weathermen say there are no clear-cut cycles or rhythms 
in the weather. It is possible that long-term progressive 
changes in rainfall occur in cycles, but present records are 
too recent to show a definite pattern. Many studies have 
been made, but the results, for all practical purposes, are 
limited. They do not furnish enough detail for farmers 
to plan for a single season or a single year. They should 
try to reserve feed for the dry years; it is during this time 
that strawstacks are most valuable. 



Cropping systems 

Variations in moisture from year to year make it 
impractical to use a fixed rotation. Practices in years 
that are productive may not be suitable for dry years. 
The number of soil types that produce well is reduced 
during prolonged dry spells. The following rotations 
are suggested, although they do not apply to all soil 
types or in all Years. 

' In 1951 the United States Northern Great Plains Field 
Station at Mandan, X. Dak., recommended a 3-year 
rotation of corn, wheat, and oats or barley. A rotation 
including summer fallow, followed by wheat, yielded 21 
bushels of corn, plus forage and 17 bushels of wheat. 
These results were obtained at Mandan, more than a 
hundred miles east of Wibaux in a relatively higher 
rainfall belt. 

Corn is usually grown oil less than a third of the acreage 
in the county. Fallow is practiced on a third of the 
acreage. The acreage in corn varies greatly from year to 
year. The purpose of using an intertilled crop or summer 
fallow is to keep down weeds and to conserve the moisture 
for the benefit of the succeeding crop. In Wibaux 
County corn serves mainly as a substitute for fallow. 
Fallow is more efficient than intertilled crops for sup- 
pressing weed growth. The costs of tillage for summer 
fallow are low. The moisture reserve is built up, and 
the following year's crop is benefited, at least during the 
early stages of plant growth. The growing of an inter- 
tilled crop, however, has the advantage of producing a 
crop while weed control is in progress. 



How and where soil erosion occurs 

Erosion starts when rainwater falls faster than it can 

penetrate the soil. The rate of penetration is affected 

li\ many factors — some natural to the soil and others 
related to soil use. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



9 



Raindrops falling- on bare soil make small gouges, and 
their splash effect can be seen on the leaves. The drops 
shatter clods and lend to break granules into particles. 
The weight of 1 inch of rainwater on an acre is more than 
110 tons. The force of falling raindrops supplies the 
energy for erosion. How much soil will be detached by 
the splash effect will depend on soil structure, the content 
of organic matter and moisture, present tilth, and ground 
cover. The unfavorable effects are seen by puddling, 
sealing, compacting, and crusting. The need for plant 
litter to break the splash effect of falling raindrops indi- 
cates the value of stubble-mulch tillage as a basic farming 
practice. 

Runoff gains energy as it travels downslope. It dislodges 
and transports soil. The first effect of runoff is hardly 
discernible because erosion occurs first as a thin sheet 
flow. Because the thickness of this flow is usually less 
than ().] inch, it is bard to see. The sheet erosion occurs 
on 95 percent of the area affected by runoff. The effects 
arc gradual and may not be noticed until all the surface 
soil is gone. Erosion is greatest on the steepest slopes. 

Sheet flow joins to form channel flow. Small rills a 
few inches wide are formed. They ordinarily can be 
obliterated by tillage. Rills grow into larger channels 
that deepen into gullies, some of which cannot be crossed 
li\ machinery. In time, erosion can cause complete loss 
of the surface soil on hilltops and slopes (fig. 5). 



.1HBES J- J"" 1 .■mH'iT '" 




Figure 5. — Erosion has removed all of the surface soil and exposed 
the light-colored subsoil or parent material on the slopes. 



Erosion control practices 

In order to stop the loss of soil, erosion should be 
controlled so far as possible. Basic practices are the 
maintenance of good soil structure, protection of the 
surface soil by stubble-mulch tillage (fig. 6). planting of 
steep erodible slopes to permanent grass cover, and the 
maintenance of good grass cover on pastures. Other 
suggested practices are stripcropping on level or gently 
sloping areas, if the size of the area permits strips (fig. 7), 
and contour stripcropping on sloping areas, if the pattern 
of drainage and topography permit this practice. 







Figure 6. Stubble-mulch tillage pre 
retaining a large part of the residue 



tects the surface soil by 
from the preceding crop. 




for 



ntly 



areas 



Figure 7. Stripcropping on level and ge 
erosion control. 

Stllbble-mulch tillage is a good basic practice on all 
cultivated lands. If soils like the Bainville. Flasher. 
Midway, or Wibaux are cropped, intensive stubble- 
mulch tillage is particularly desirable, as well as the use of 
all possible crop residues, including straw and manure. 
It is often feasible to place areas of these soils in strips 
of grass when contour stripcropping is used. Remember 
that crop residues return nitrogen to the soil, add organic 
matter, and reduce erosion. They promote good tilth 
and soil structure that help to keep the surface soil 
porous. 

Some soils like Yebar fine sandy loam and the Yebar- 
Timmer complex are particularly susceptible to wind 
erosion. Intensive stubble-mulch tillage and the use of 
all available crop residues are needed to control erosion. 
Where stripcropping is used, the strips should be 
narrower than those on other soils in the county. For 
most soils, the width of the strips should not exceed 20 
rods. 

Steep areas not suitable for tillage, or areas suitable 
only for limited or occasional cultivation, are often inter- 
mingled with soils well suited to cultivation. The use 
of these areas is determined by their size. Some of the 



10 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



included areas are farmed with the better soils. If the 
acreage of these steep or thin soils is extensive, the best 
use for all the area would be for permanent grass. 

Contour stripcropping with grass buffer strips is used 
to control erosion and to conserve fertility (fig. 8). The 




Figure 8. — Contour stripcropping with permanent grass or grass- 
legume buffers to control erosion on slopes. 

grass can be cut for hay or used for pasture. Over a 
period of time, productivity is stabilized or possibly 
increased. In general, contouring is not effective on 
slopes of more than 7 or 8 percent. 

Sod or grassed waterways should be established where 
runoff water concentrates. The waterways are beneficial 
even where contouring a field is not practical. On areas 
to be cleared, the vegetation should be left near the 
regular water channels. Trees, shrubs, and grass strips 
help to stabilize the waterways in time of runoff. The 
trees provide shade and shelter for livestock. The 
Farland-Harlem complex, which occupies low terraces 
or hot torn lands, is typical of land where strips of native 
vegetation should be left near the regular water channels. 

Recommendations on erosion control practices are 
given by technicians of t lie Soil Conservation Service 
and the county agent. They can help plan the man- 
menl of your farm. 



Seeding grass 

( Masses are seeded on the native range to increase the 
yield of forage or on areas too steep for regular cultivation 
thai need protection from erosion. Grass also rebuilds 
soil structure. It can be used on regular croplands for 
this purpose. A long-time rotation leaves the soil in grass 
for 6 to 8 years and in crops for an equal period, or longer. 

The most satisfactory grasses for seeding arc crested 
wheatgrass, intermediate wheatgrass, tall wheatgrass. 
slender wheatgrass, green aeedlegrass, and bromegrass. 
(Vested wheatgrass is the hardiest. Bromegrass tends to 
become sod-bound and prefers moist sites. Intermediate 
wheatgrass is better for the more fertile or productive 
sites. Western \\ heatgrass ordinarily is not seeded, but on 
1 1 1 : 1 1 ) \ of the heavier soils it frequently reseeds naturally if 
all of il has not been killed during tillage. It is particularly 



good for grass waterways, where it should dominate the 
stand. Tall wheatgrass is often used on saline soils, such 
as Cherry silt loam, saline, or Wade sods. 

The problem of reestablishing a good grazing crop on 
severely eroded and steep areas, where the native stand 
of grass has been destroyed by tillage, has not been solved 
satisfactorily. Seeding may not be practical in some places 
on the steep eroded areas. Some of these areas may seed 
back naturally if all the native grasses were not killed by 
cultivation. Broken raw slopes that have exposed shale 
and little or no soil are very difficult to revegetate. 

Since new strains of grasses and legumes are being 
developed for the Great Plains areas, one should consult 
the county agent or Soil Conservation Service technicians 
or read the bulletins of the State agricultural experiment 
station for the latest information. 

Because of the risk of losing stands of hay and of the 
grazing crop by winterkilling, drought, or other hazards. 
an annual forage crop should be established as a reserve. 
Small grains to be cut for hay, corn for grain or silage, and 
millet and rye are the most satisfactory. 



Hay and pasture 

Alfalfa is a hay crop that is not well suited to grazing. 
It is grown on nearly level to gently sloping sods where 
moisture can accumulate. It is deep rooted and draws 
heavily on soil moisture. 

Sweetclover is used for hay and pasture. It is a biennial 
and will reseed itself and make a partial stand in later 
years. Yields are not as high as those of alfalfa. Sweet- 
clover is used to supplement crested wheatgrass because it 
provides good midsummer grazing when crested wheat- 
grass is dormant. It can also be planted with bromegrass 
for high production. 

The wheatgrasses are suitable for hay and pasture. They 
are hardier than alfalfa, which sometimes winterkills. 
Alfalfa or a legume should be planted with the wheat- 
grasses for heavy yields. 

The best way to establish hay and grazing crops is to 
prepare the land by summer fallow or by growing an 
intertilled crop. Alfalfa and sweetclover are seeded with- 
out a nurse crop — a nurse crop competes with the perma- 
nent cover for food and moisture. The other hay and 
pasture crops should also be seeded without a nurse crop. 
Whatever hay crop is seeded, a small amount of legumes 
should always be planted with the grass for hay and pas- 
ture. The new pasture plants should not be grazed the 
first year because of the possibility of losing the stand. 



Past history of the county as it 
affects agriculture 

The history of a county and past records of its climate 
and productivity furnish some information that can be 
used as a guide to future plans for farming and ranching. 
Wibaux County is a part of the Great Plains. Lewis 
and (Mark passed near its northern boundary in 1804 05 
on their exploration of the Northwest. The Wibaux area 
was a land of grass, buffalo, and the Plains Indian. 

From 1850 to 1904 it was part of a great cattle country. 
Severe winters began in 1880-81. The winter of 1886-87 
was the worst on record: livestock losses ranged from lit) 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



to 95 percent. After this disaster the stockmen realized 
the need of extra feed and began to produce hay. 

The Northern Pacific Railway crossed the area in 
1881. By 1904 farms were getting started, for settlers 
were coming in after the passage of the Homestead acts. 
Years of good rainfall began. More than three-fourths 
of the years from 1905 to 1916 were average or above 
normal in rainfall. An era of prosperity prevailed; wheat 
was the dominant crop. Wibaux County was formed in 
1914. 

Droughts came during 1917 to 1939 and nearly ended 
dryland farming. Rainfall in three-fourths of the years 
was below the long-time average. A very severe drought 
in the 1930's occurred at the same time as the Great 
Depression. This combination brought tax delinquencies, 
bank failures, and other financial misfortunes. 

Rains came again in 1940-48, and production and 
prices were high. From 1949 to 1954 one-third of the 
years were dry and two-thirds had above-average rainfall 
in Wibaux County. 

Farmers should realize that in years of abundant rain- 
fall, even the poorer soils produce fair to good crops. In 
average years these same soils yield fewer bushels, whereas 
the better soils give about average yields. In the drier 
years, only the best soils produce crops. In the worst 
years, crops fail on nearly all soils. At least two or three 
droughts have occurred in the Great Plains since the 
1880's. Stockmen should establish conservative levels 
of stocking and know their ranges. Ranges in good 
condition suffer less from drought than those grazed too 
close! v. 



Estimated Yields 

High yields of crops are the result of good soil and good 
soil management. The soil that is used within its capa- 
bilities and is treated according to its needs will produce 
the best average yields. Low yields may be caused by 
using soils that have many severe limitations, bj' growing 
crops that are not suited to the soil, or by poor soil 
management. Droughts, hail, insects, or plant diseases 
also adversely affect the soils. 

Many soil properties, such as depth, water penetration 
in subsoil layers, and content of organic matter cannot 
be changed much by farming practices. The risks of 
erosion caused by slope can be reduced by practices to 
control erosion, particularly by keeping crop residues at 
or near the surface. 

The estimated yields of various crops are given in table 
1. The first figure in the yield column is the estimated 
average yield for ordinary years; the second figure is 
the estimated average yield for better-than-ordinary 
years. These yields are for the principal crops growing 
under prevailing management. The prevailing manage- 
ment is not intensive, and systematic crop rotation is 
not practiced. No commercial fertilizers are applied 
because most of the soils will give good yields if they 
receive enough moisture. Some manure is available, 
but it is seldom used because it decays so slowly thai it 
may reduce yields on cropland, especially the Hist year. 

The yield estimates in table 1 were compiled from a 
number of sources, including Information gained in talks 
with local farmers. Improved crop varieties, bet lei' use 
of fertilizers, and other good farming practices may make 



it possible to increase yields by 20 to 40 percent above 
those given in the table. Ordinarily, good crops have 
been obtained about 2 years out of 5. Complete failure 
has occurred about once in 5 years. 

The estimated yields in table 1 can lie used to compare 
present production on your fields with those obtained in 
the past. If your yields are below the average, the 
management, system and cropping practices probably 
should be changed. The 40 soils listed are those suited to 
cultivation. 



Management of Rangeland 

Almost three-fourths of the land in Wibaux County is 
in range and small pastures; large areas of range are in 
the north and southwest. Although range and small 
pastures continue to produce year after year, the grass 
and other plants will respond to good management. The 
kind and amount of vegetation on the range determine the 
number of cattle it can profitably carry. 



Know your grasses and other plants 

Farmers or ranchers should know the native grasses and 
plants on their land in order to plan its best use in range 
or pasture. Some grasses grow best in cool seasons; 
others make their best growth in warm weather. Some 
grow well in the lowlands; others are better suited to 
upland drier sites. Some reproduce by seed; others 
spread by underground stems. The grasses that grow 
best depend on the site, the soil, and the climate. The 
way the plants are grazed or managed affects the condition 
of the range and the plants on it. 

Some of the native grasses in Wibaux County are as 
follows: blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), a warm-season 
short grass that increases in relative amount as the range 
condition declines ; western wheatgrass {Agropyron smithii), 
one of the most valuable grasses of the northern Great 
Plains, is a cool-season midgrass that spreads by means 
of underground stems and by seeds; needle-and-thread 
(Stipa comata), a midgrass and major cool-season forage 
plant; prairie junegrass (Koelc/id cristata), an early season 
midgrass of bunch habit; threadleaf sedge (Carex filijolia) , 
one of the first plants to provide green grazing in the 
spring; little bluestem (Andropogon scoparius), a vigorous 
warm-season forage of the slopes; and green needlegrass 
(S. viridula), a tall grass and important cool-season forage 
plant. 

Some of the native plants that increase under heavy 
grazing on the range are fringed sagebrush {Artemisia 
frigida) silver sagebrush (A cana), an important 
winter browse plant; and false-tarragon sagebrush (A. 
dracv. nculoides). 



Range site and condition 

Range site is defined as an area of range sufficiently 
uniform in climate, soil, and topography to result in a 
particular climax vegetation. Climax vegetation is the 
final stage of plant succession for a given natural environ- 
ment; the stage at which the composition of the plant 
community remains unchanged and can reproduce itself 



12 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 

Table 1. — Estimated yields for the 40 principal soils suited to crops 1 
A= Average yields for ordinary years. B = Average yields for the years giving the best production] 



Yields 2 per acre of- 



Soil 


Wheat Barley Oats 

1 


Corn Alfalfa Native hay 3 Mixed hay 4 




A 


B 


A B A B A B 


A 


B 


A B A B 


\]]iivial land 


Bu. 


Bu. 


Bu. Bu. 


Bu. Bu. 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 
0.5 
1 

1 


Tons 
2 

2 
2 


Tons 
0. 7 

. 7 
. 7 


Tons 
1 

1 
1 


Tons : Tons 
0. 7 1. 5 


^rnegard -^ilt loam to 2 percent slopes 


12 
10 
4 
8 
5 
4 
10 
6 


20 
15 

9 

14 
10 

8 
16 
11 


20 30 i 25 


3 
2 

1 
2 


5 

4 
2 

4 


.7 1. 5 


\rnegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes 


17 
6 

15 
6 
5 

17 
7 


26 

11 
23 
11 
10 
27 
11 


21 

7 

19 


33 

11 
32 


.7 1. 5 


Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes 




C'hama silt loam 4 to 7 percent slopes 






. 3 


. 5 


. 3 


. 8 


Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent slopes.. 
Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 


8 12 

7 11 

21 34 

10 13 
























2 


4 


1 


2 


. 7 


1 


. 7 


1. 5 


Cherrv silt loam 4 to 9 percent slopes 














. 7 
. 3 
. 3 
. 3 
. 3 


1 

. 5 
. 5 
. 5 
. 5 


. 7 


1 s 


Cherry — ; i 1 1 loam saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes 






















.3 .8 


Chevenne loam, to 5 percent slopes 


8 
8 
7 
10 
10 
6 


14 
14 
12 
16 
16 
10 


15 
15 
12 
17 
17 
9 


23 
23 
23 
27 
27 
11 


19 
19 
15 
21 
21 
8 


32 
32 
26 
34 
34 
13 


2 


4 


. 5 


1 


.3 . S 


Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes.. 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes.. 
Farland silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 percent slopes 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes 
Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes 


.3 .8 










. 3 . .8 


2 

2 


4 

4 


1 

1 


2 
2 


. 7 1 
. 7 1 


.7 1. 5 
.7 1. 5 






1 

1 


2 


1 
1 
. 5 


.7 1. 5 




11 
9 


17 
15 


18 
16 


28 
26 


22 

21 


35 
33 


2 

2 


4 
4 


2 


. 7 
.3 
. 7 


.7 1.5 
.3 .8 


McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, Oto 1 percent slopes 






1 1. 5 


Midway-Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent slopes . 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent 
slopes 


5 
5 

5 

9 

11 
8 

11 
9 
6 

10 
8 
8 
8 
6 
8 

10 
4 
8 
6 


10 

10 

10 
15 
17 
14 
17 
15 
11 
16 
14 
14 
14 
10 
14 
16 
9 
14 
1 1 


6 

7 

6 
16 
18 
15 
18 
16 
10 
17 
15 
15 
15 

8 
15 
17 

6 
15 


11 

11 

11 
26 
28 
25 
28 
26 
16 
27 
23 
25 
25 
11 
23 
27 
11 
9!5 


7 
8 

7 
20 
22 
19 
22 
20 
11 
21 
19 
19 
19 

9 
19 
21 

8 
19 


12 

12 

12 
33 
35 
32 
35 
33 
23 
34 
32 
32 
32 
13 
32 
34 
9 
39: 


































Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8 to 11 percent 

slopes. _ . . 
Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 
Morton- Arnegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 

Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 
Regenl silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes 
Savage silty clay, to 3 percent slopes ... 
Savage-Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes . 
Searing loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 


















2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


4 

4 
4 

4 
4 






• ? 

. 7 

. 3 
. 7 
. 3 


. 5 
1 

. 5 
1 

. 5 


.3 

:l 

.3 


. 8 


1 


2 


1. 5 
.8 


1 


2 


1. 5 

. 8 










2 
2 
2 
2 


4 
4 
4 
4 


1 
. 5 


2 

1 


. 7 
. 3 
.3 
.3 


1 
. 5 
. 5 
.5 


. 7 
.3 
.3 
.3 


1.5 

.8 
.8 


Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 






. 8 


Vebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes 
Vebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Wade silty clay loam, lo 3 percent slopes 








2 

2 


4 
4 






. 3 

. 7 


. 5 

1 


.3 

. 7 


. 8 


1 


2 


1. 5 


Williams silt loam. 2 lo ."> percent slopes . 


2 


4 






. 3 


. 5 


.3 


. 8 


Williams silt loam, 6 to 1-1 percent slopes __ 


10 l 16 


11 23 





























5 tils not suited to crop.- have been omitted from this table. 
Leaders indicate that the crop is not commonly grown on the soil. 

2 Approximate average acre yields obtained without the use of 
amendments. 



3 For dominant grasses on the soils, see the section, Management 
of Rangelaud. 

' Mixed hay consists of timothy, alsike clover, red clover, redtop, 
alfalfa, and other suitable grasses. 



as long as the environment remains unchanged. Range 
sites arc named from one or more prominenl features of 
the soil or topography. Examples are Overflow land, 
Saline low land, and Silly land. 

Range condition, an indirect measure of past grazing 
management, is determined by comparing the kind and 
amount of present vegetation with the original. It is 
estimated in this way because the original combination of 
native grasses is usually the most productive for the range 
site. Range condition classes are excellent, good, fair, 
and poor. 

Usually three or four kinds of native grasses were 



dominant in the climax vegetation of a range site. For 
example, the silty land range site had a general cover of 
green ncedlegrass. needle-and-thread, western wheatgrass, 
and slender wheatgrass. with an mulerstory of blue grama. 
Little bluestem and threadleaf sedge were common on 
exposed knobs and steeper slopes. Many other grasses 
grew, but the four that were dominant made up more 
than 75 percent of the total forage on the site. If the 
Silty land range site is grazed so that the needle-and- 
thread and wheatgrasses remain abundant, the site is 
probably producing the maximum amount of forage. 
Figures 9, in. 11. and L2 show the grasses on the Silty 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



13 



land range site under four range conditions. The same 
principle of climax vegetation holds true for the original 
cover on other sites. 

If the range site is closely grazed, the plants will change 
in kind and quantity. Western wheatgrass, needle-and- 
thread, and prairie junegrass will increase at first. If the 
range is continuously overgrazed, short grasses and 
shrubby plants will increase. Among the principal short 
grasses are blue grama and sandberg bluegrass, and the 







Figure 9. — Silty land range site in excellent range condition. 
Principal grasses: green needlegrass, needle-and-thread, western 
wheatgrass, prairie sandreed, and junegrass. Note heavy mulch, 
luxuriant plant growth, and large amount of forage. Rainfall soaks 
into the ground and there is little or no erosion. 




Figure 10. — Silty land range site in good range condition. Prin- 
cipal grasses: needle-and-thread; western wheatgrass; blue grama, 
green needlegrass, sandberg bluegrass. Note ground is well 
covered and plants are vigorous. 




<*\ ' :. ':■ ; . M 



J .^"*- 



ȣv 



WJ-. 














Figure 11. — Silty land range site in fair range condition. Principal 

plants: bluegrass, threadleaf sedge, sandberg bluegrass, western 

wheatgrass, needle-and-thread. Note ground cover and low 

production of forage. 




:'"• 
%*.-1**' i 









i 

Figure 12. — Silty land range site in poor range condition. Prin- 
cipal plants and grasses: cactus, annuals, blue grama, remnant 
of western wheatgrass in cactus. Note ground is poorly protected; 
plants look spindly and weak. There can be much loss of rainfall, 
and wind erosion will occur. 

shrubby plants are fringed sagebrush, pricklypear, snow- 
berry, and big sagebrush. Weeds, grasses, and shrubs 
that will invade areas grazed closely for long periods are 
Kentucky bluegrass, curly cup gumweed, broom snake- 
weed, foxtail barley, rabbitbrush, and false-tan-agon 
sagebrush. 

The soils of Wibaux County have been grouped under 
various range sites to help ranchers in the proper stocking 
of their ranges. The range site, the soil, or soils, in each, 
and the dominant vegetation when the range is in excellent 
condition are as follows: 



from higher areas or 
Western wheatgrass, 



Overflow land: Soils tlmi receive extra moisturi 
from stream overflow. Dominant vegetation: 
switchgrass, and big bluestem. 
Alluvial land. 

Arnegard silt loam, to 2 percent slopes. 
Arnegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Farland silt loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 percent slopes. 
Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to (> percent slope-. 
Grail silly clay loam, 2 to I percent slopes. 
Grail silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Morton- Arnegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Savage-Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes. 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandv loams. to 3 percent slopes 



14 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



Saline lowland: More or less salty soils thai receive moisture from 
higher areas or from stream overflow. Dominant vegetation: 
Alkali cordgrass, alkali sacaton, saltgrass, and sedges. 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes. 

Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, to 1 percent slopes. 

Wade silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Sands: Deep, loose, coarse-textured soils. Dominant vegetation: 
Green needlegrass, switchgrass, prairie sandreed, needle-and- 
thread, little bluestem, and big bluestem. 

Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent slopes. 
Sandy land: Normal sandy loams, deep to medium depth. Dominant 
vegetation: Green needlegrass, switchgrass, prairie sandreed, 
needle-and-thread, little bluestem, and big bluestem. 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 

Vebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes. 
Silty land: Xormal silt loams, deep to medium depth. Dominant 
vegetation: Western wheatgrass, little bluestem, green needle- 
grass, needle-and-thread, and slender wheatgrass. 

Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes. 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 

Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent slopes. 

Chama silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes. 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 

Cherry silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Cheyenne loam, to 5 percent slopes. 

Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes. 

Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Searing loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 

Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 

Williams silt loam, 6 to 14 percent slopes. 

Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes. 
Clayey land: Xormal silty clay loams, deep to medium depth. Domi- 
nant vegetation: Western wheatgrass, plains reedgrass, and 
green needlegrasses. 

Midway-Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 

Midway-Moreau complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 

Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes. 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 percent slopes. 

Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 

Regent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
Panspols: Claypan soils with slick spots. Dominant vegetation: 
Western wheal grass, needle-and-thread, and blue grama. 

Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 

.Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 

Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes. 
Thin breaks. Dominant vegetation: Western wheatgrass, little 
bluestem, and prairie sandreed. 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

Bainville- Wibaux complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes. 
Shallow land. Dominant vegetation: Western wheatgrass, prairie 
sandreed, and side-oats grama. 

Flasher loamy fine sand. 10 to 14 percent slopes. 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 

Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes. 
Very shallow land. Dominant vegetation: Threadleaf sedge, blue 
grama, stonyhills tnuhly, and western wheatgrass. 

Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes. 

Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent slopi 
Shale a ml clay. Dominant vegetation: Blue grama, threadleaf 
sedge, western wheatgrass, and juniper. 

L ism as clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 60 percent slopes. 

Pierre-Lismas clays, L5 to 10 percent slopes. 



How to plan range use 

First, identify your soils on the maps in the back of this 
report. Then refer to the range sites previously listed 
to find in which site your soils are located and the plants 
that are dominant when the range is in excellent condition. 
Next, examine your range to check the plants now growing 
on it. On the basis of this comparison, and by finally 
considering the vigor of the plants and the number of 
weeds, you can estimate the condition of your range. 

The number of livestock can be adjusted from season 
to season according to the amount of vegetation.. When 
half the growth has been grazed off, move the animals to 
another pasture, market them, or provide feed. 

Technicians of the Wibaux Soil Conservation District 
will help you to determine the different kinds of range sites 
on your land. They can help you measure the rauge 
condition and plan management practices for best range 
production. 



Principles of range management 

Four main principles of management apply in the 
proper use of axiy range site. The}* are: 

1. Proper number of livestock. — The stocking rate 
during the growing season should permit utilization of 
about one-half of the annual growth of the taller high- 
producing grasses. The number of livestock should be 
balanced against the time they will be on the range and 
the condition of the grasses. If the balance is good and 
the proper amount of forage is left on the ground, the 
cover will (a) serve as a mulch that aids in the greater 
intake and storage of water; (b) permit greater root 
development and better utilization of stored moisture; 

(c) protect the soil from erosion by wind and water; 

(d) allow grass to crowd out weeds and thereby further 
improve range conditions; (e) enable plants to store more 
food in their roots for growth in the following year; 
(f) aid in holding snow in place and in providing a more 
even distribution of moisture; and (g) provide a greater 
feed reserve for winter grazing. 

2. Proper distribution of grazing. — Many pastures are 
overgrazed in some areas and undergrazed, or not grazed 
at all, in others (fig. 13). This problem can be overcome 
by a better distribution of salt and water and a careful 
location of fences. Salt should be placed on areas that 
are lightly grazed. It should not be put on sandy or 
eroded spots such as occur on Flasher or Valentine soils. 
Special care should be taken to avoid trampling on Vebar 
and Timmer soils. Watering places should be developed 
over the entire pasture, if possible, so that the stock do 
not have to walk too far. Fences should be located to 
provide pasture for all classes of livestock that will tun 
on the range in summer and also to furnish pastures for 
winter use. Wherever possible, place fences on the 
boundaries between range sites. 

3. Proper season of use. — The time of grazing can often 
be arranged by placing pasture fences so that livestock 
will graze cool-season grasses early in the spring and warm- 
season grasses in the summer. Range site and its condition 
help to determine the best time for grazing. A pasture 
in poor to fair condition should be rested until fall or 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



15 




Figure 13. E fleet of grazing on root and top growth on two grasses. 
Samples dug the same day from the same soil, on opposite sides 
offence. Left, blue grama (A) after many years of close grazing; 
(B) under normal production. Right, needle-and-thread (A) 
closelv grazed; (B) grazed on the principle of "take half-leave 

half." 



winter to permit the better grasses to seed and to spread 
by underground stems. 

4. Proper kind of grazing animals. — The people of 
Wibaux County have learned that cattle are best suited 
to their farm and ranch operations. In this section of the 
Great Plains the grasses, soil, and climate are suitable 
for either cattle or sheep. 



Management of Woodlands 



Generally woodlands are growing on areas not suited 
to other crops. Protection from fire and control of 
grazing are important management problems. 

Natural woodlands 

In 194o Wibaux County had 5,436 acres of natural 
woodland. 1 Evergreen species make up about a fifth 
of the acreage. The rest of the woodland consists of 
mixed stands of deciduous trees. Scattered stands of 
ponderosa pine and juniper are in the rougher areas of 
the southwestern part of the county. Because juniper 
is a durable wood, it lias been cut repeatedly for fence 
posts. The deciduous or broadleaf species are on the 
river bottoms and along streams and drainageways. 

Along Beaver Creek the native vegetation consists of 
deciduous trees and brush and grass on many open 
areas. The trees are mostly second-growth cottonwood, 
green ash. American elm, boxelder. and willow. Scattered 

1 Brown, C. W., and Hodge, W. C. forest resources <>f 
northern Montana. U. S. Forest Sei'v., Northern Rocky Moun- 
tain Forest and Range Expt. Sta., Sta. Paper 13. 1948. 

440118— 58 2 



thickets of hawthorn, dogwood, wildrose, wildplum, and 
chokecherry and expanses of buffaloberry are common. 
The wooded areas were important to the early settlers 
who depended upon them for building materials, fuel, 
food, and shelter. Although the natural woodlands have 
a limited commercial use, they are increasingly valued 
as watersheds and for wildlife and recreation. 



Woodland and windbreak plantings 

Tin' advantages to be derived from planting woodlands 
should be considered. Trees and shrubs add beauty to 
the farm (fig. 14). Windbreaks protect the house and 




Figure 14. — Windbreaks and woodland plantings protect buildings 
and beautify the home. 

also reduce its heating costs by shielding it from the 
elements. A house exposed to wind moving 20 miles 
per hour will use more than twice as much fuel as it 
would if exposed to a wind moving 5 miles per hour. 
Windbreaks also provide shelter for livestock. The 
feeding requirements of the animals can be lowered if 
they are shielded from wind and storm. Technical 
assistance on what, when, and how to plant can be given 
by representatives of the Soil Conservation Service and 
the county agent. 



Planting sites 

The soils of Wibaux County can be placed into three 
groups, called planting sites, which can be used in a general 
way to determine the adaptability of an area for wind- 
break plantings. Before a windbreak is planned, some 
areas may need further investigation to determine their 
suitability for certain kinds of trees. 

PLANTING SITE 1 

Planting site 1 consists of soils generally well adapted 
to woodland plantings for farmstead or field windbreaks. 
They are as follows: 




16 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



i pyemic loam, to 5 percent slopes. 
Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes, 
(ashman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Farland silt loam. to 3 percent slopes. 
Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to tS percent slopes. 
Grail silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Grail silty clay loam. 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Midway- Moreau complex. 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 percent slopes. 
Morton silt loam. 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Morton- Arnegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Regent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Savage- Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes. 
Scaring loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes. 
Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent slopes. 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
Yebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes. 
Vebar- Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes. 
Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes. 
Williams silt loam, 6 to 14 percent slopes. 

On planting site 1 the following species are commonly 
used: Caragana, green ash, American elm, Chinese elm, 
Russian-olive, and buffalobeny. Other species probably 
can he used successfully. 

The cottonwood and willow should be limited to areas 
that are subirrigated or have sufficient run-in water. 
Ponderosa pine, Colorado spruce, and Rocky Mountain 
juniper are also useful evergreen plantings. Ash is subject 
to attack by the wood borer. 

Practices for establishing windbreaks include fallow 
previous to planting, fencing to exclude livestock, and 
cultivation to keep down weeds. A cultivated strip 
around the planting is desirable for storing moisture and 
for protection from fire. Runoff should be diverted to 
the planting site wherever possible. Snow fences are 
useful for trapping snow to provide moisture during the 
early growth periods. Deep mulching is not a substitute 
for clean cultivation. Protect the young trees from 
rodent damage, insects, and disease. On sloping lands, 
plant and cultivate on the contour where practicable 
(fig. L5). 

On the very sandy soils, such as Valentine fine sand, 
5 to 1.") percent slopes, the hazard from wind erosion is 
very great. 

The rows of trees should be clean cultivated, but part 




* - -~\ ■■■.-■- ■.■<■•?■. 

Figun /■». — Windbreak planted on (he contour. 



of the space between rows should be planted to cover 
crops to control wind erosion. 

PLANTING SITE 2 

Planting site 2 consists of saline and wet areas and 
claypan soils. Plantings on this site should be limited to 
salt-tolerant species. Saline soils with a high salt content, 
or pH above about 8.5, are not suitable for trees. Slightly 
saline soils or nonsaline alkali soils are suitable for cotton- 
wood, Russian-olive, buffaloberry, golden willow, and 
white willow. The following mapping units are included 
in this planting site: 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes. 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
MeKenzie-Hoven silty clays, to 1 percent slopes. 
Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes. 
Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes. 
Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes. 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes. 
Wade silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 

FLANT.NG SITE 3 

Planting site 3 consists of very steep slopes, shallow 
sods, and very heavy clay soils. This site is generally 
not adapted to trees, although some spots can be success- 
fully planted. Thorough investigation should be made 
before trees are planted on these areas. The following 
mapping units are included in planting site 3: 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 
Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent slopes. 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent slopes. 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Bainville- Wibaux complex. 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 
Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 10 to 14 percent slopes. 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes. 
Lismas clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 60 percent slopes. 
Midway- Moreau complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes. 
Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes. 
Pierre-Lismas clays, 15 to 40 percent slopes. 
Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes. 
Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes. 
Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes. 
Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes. 

Wildlife 

In pioneer times the settlers hunted and fished for their 
immediate use. The exploitation of wildlife continued 
long after the supply of domestic animals was adequate. 
We are now, however, beginning to realize the value of 
conserving wildlife. 

Wibaux County supports many kinds of wildlife in- 
cluding deer (fig. 16), antelope, mink, beaver, muskrat, 
raccoon, skunk, rabbit, ground squirrel, coyote, prairie 
dog, and badger. Upland birds include the sharptailed 
grouse, sage hen, ring-necked pheasant, horned lark, tree 
sparrow, meadowlark, robin, blackbird, mourning dove, 
and other insect-eating birds. Birds of the lakes and 
marshes include ducks, herons, coots, terns, gulls, kill- 
deers, sandpipers, and geese. Crappies, black bass, 
hluegills, bullheads, cat fish, and walleyed pike abound 
in the waters of the county. 

The Lamesteer National Widlife Game Refuge has been 

established In the United States Pish and Wildlife Service 

iii the southwestern pari of the county. 



WIB.UX COUNTY. -MONTANA 



17 




■A . 



Figure 16. — Fawn; it will lose its spots before long. 



Some kinds of wildlife are valuable for controlling 
insects and rodents. Birds, hawks, owls, and insect-eating 
animals, such as skunks, moles, and shrews, naturally 
belong on the land. All kinds of wildlife can live on the 
farm or ranch if food, cover, and water are present. 

Many natural wildlife habitats already exist in the 
county. They should be protected from burning and 
grazing; brushy areas and coulees should be fenced out, 
and protection afforded around small ponds. Almost 
every farm and ranch has areas where food, cover, and 
water could be provided for wildlife. 

A general plan for developing and improving wildlife 
habitats will include some of the following minimum 
practices: 

1. Prepare the site, if necessary, and cultivate the 

woody and shrub plantings to get them started. 

2. Protect the site from burning and grazing. 

3. Plant species that will furnish food and cover, 

including shrubs and trees. 

4. Plant and cultivate on the contour on sloping 

lands. 

5. Give particular attention to gully and stream- 

bank plantings, fence rows, ditchbanks, road- 
sides, hedges, and windbreaks. 

6. Develop a complete conservation plan; provide 

food, cover, and water for wildlife during the 
entire year. 

Wibaux County has many reservoirs that can be stocked 
with fish. Because the reservoirs vary in depth and some 
are dry during part of the year, care should be taken in 
stocking them. 

Technical assistance in developing habitats and in 
stocking reservoirs can be obtained from your local Soil 
Conservation Service technician, from the Stale Fish and 
Game Department, and the United States Fish and Wild- 
life Service, the State or Federal forester, or the county 



Soil Associations 

A knowledge of the general distribution of soils is 
important. The large-scale colored map in the back of this 
report shows generalized soil associations in Wibaux 



County. The map has been drawn from the detailed 
maps and only dominant soils are shown. 

This section broadly describes the land use and <rives 
the principal soil series in the designated areas. The 11 
soil associations are as follows. 



Rhoades-Flasher-Cushman 

This association is in the southwestern part of the 
county. It consists principally of grazing land, but local 
dryland farming areas are on Cushman soils. The land- 
scape on which this association occurs is apparently 
geologically older than the rest of the county. Most areas 
of this association are rolling to sleep, hut a lew arc 
smooth. Exposures of Hell Creek and Fox Hills sand- 
stone formations occur. Included is a small sandhill 
section of Valentine soils. Some areas of Badlands occur, 
which, lor the most part, are used for grazing. Hay is cut 
on local creek bottoms on the Glendive and Alluvial soils. 
Extensive areas of Rhoades soils pit the area. They have 
a dense clavpan. 



Pierre-Lisma s-Rhoades-Moline 

This distinct soil association, like the Rhoades-Flasher- 
Cushman, is in the southwestern part of the county. The 
soils are closely related to broad exposures of dense clay 
shale of the Bearpaw formation. This landscape is also 
very oh I geologically. The heavy clay soils support a 
sparse cover of grasses. Thin to heavy stands of Rocky 
Mountain juniper occur on parts of this soil association. 
The juniper trees are a local source of fence posts. The 
topography is smooth to rolling and steep. The associa- 
tion proAndes sparse grazing and a refuge for wildlife. 



Badlands-Bainville-Flasher-Midway 

This association occurs in the southwestern part of the 
county and borders the Pierre-Lismas-Rhoades-Moline 
association. It also occurs in the northern and north- 
western parts of the county. It is a fairly distinct area of 
rough land. Much of the area consists of Badlands. This 
association is dominantly a range area that has steep 
eroding breaks and an intricate stream pattern. In the 
far north, Zahl and Williams soils are on smoother rem- 
nants of a glaciated landscape on the eroded uplands. 
\'o Midway soils occur in the far north. 



Moreau-Midway-Regent 

This association is in (he southern pari of the county. 
It consists generally of moderately heavy soils. It is a 
mixed farming and grazing area. The topography is 
mostly sloping, and there are intermingled steep areas of 
Bainville and Flasher soils. On the gentle slopes the soils 
are very productive. Some Grail soils are associated with 
those of the Regent series. 



Farland-Savage-Harlem 

This distinct association of soils is on the bottom lands 
and low terraces of Beaver ('reek' and its main tributaries. 



18 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



The farmlands occurring on it are in many places highly 
productive. In a few areas, claypans of the Wade series 
occnr. Cheyenne soils are on some of the high benches. 
Along the Yellowstone River and Smith Creek in the 
northern part of the county, the association includes 
isolated areas of the Badlands-Bainville-Flasher-Midway 
soil association. 



Flasher-Vebar 

This association consists of scattered areas where sandy 
soils are predominant. It is only fairly distinct, since, 
sandy soils occur throughout the count}*. Intermingled 
are areas of silt loam soils of the Morton and Chama series 
as well as other soils. Soils in this association have the 
greatest hazard from wind erosion. The topography is 
smooth to steep, and sandstone outcrops are common in 
the road cuts. Much of the area is farmed, but native 
grasses grow in places. 



Bainville-Chama-Flasher 

This association includes much of the land north of the 
town of Wibaux. It is dominantly a good range country 
made up of silty soils having moderately steep to steep 
slopes. A few of the better soils on the gentler slopes are 
cultivated. The steeply sloping areas were once farmed, 
but they have largely been abandoned. Hay is cut on the 
( Iherry soils, which occur in the larger stream valleys. 



Bainville-Wibaux-Chama 

This association consists dominantly of scoria buttes. 
Most of the area is steep and hilly, but a few places have 
gentle slopes suited to farming. This association is 
fairly good for range. 



Morton-Arnegard-Chama 

This distinct soil association occurs in the eastern part 
of the county. It is dominantly level to gently sloping 
but includes a few intermingled areas of steeper slopes and 
scoria buttes. Some of the best farming land in the county 
is in the Morton-Arnegard-Chama association. 



Wibaux-Morton-Chama-Bainville-Searing 

This distinctive soil association is characterized by the 
scoria knobs that occur in association with Wibaux soils. 
The topography ranges from sloping to hilly. Mixed 
fanning and grazing prevail on inan\ of the soils. The 
smoother slopes arc occupied by Morton, Chama, and 
Searing soils. 

Chama-Morton-Bainville-Flasher 

This association is composed of many kinds of soils and 
dopes. The soil patterns are very complex. It is a 
mixed farming-grazing area. Small areas of Wibaux and 
\lidw a\ soils are included. 



Descriptions of Soils 



This section describes the soil series (groups of sod) and 
single soils (mapping units) of Wibaux County. Here is 
the method followed: 

The sod series is described first, and in detail. An 
important part of this description is the soil profile, a 
record of what the sod surveyor saw and learned when he 
dug into the ground. The profile for each series was 
taken at a given location within one of the mapping units 
belonging to that series. It is called a "typical" profile, 
because, aside from minor variations, it is the kind of 
profile that will be found in all sods of a given series. 

Each of the mapping units, or sods, in a series is de- 
scribed next. The description for each sod is brief, 
because all the sods in one series are basically the same. 
For a single sod in a series, the emphasis is on those 
characteristics it has that other sods of the same series 
do not have, or have in a different degree. Slope, erosion, 
and similar properties that affect management are pointed 
out in the description of the single sods. 

The location and distribution of the. single sods, or 
mapping units, are shown on the sod map at the back of 
this report. Then - approximate acreage and proportionate 
extent are shown in table 2. Figure 4 shows the topo- 
graphic position of several sods important in the county. 
It will be helpful to refer to the section, Sod Survey 
Methods and Definitions, for definition of "series,'' 
"phases," and other special terms used in describing sods. 

Soil horizons believed to contain free carbonates have 
been tested with a few drops of dilute hydrochloric acid. 
Bubbles of carbon dioxide show that carbonates, usually 
calcium carbonate, are present. Soils that effervesce 
when ddute acid is dropped on them are described as 
effervescing slightly, strongly, etc. A horizon described 
as "strongly calcareous'' will effervesce strongly. 



Alluvial land 

Alluvial land (Aa). — Narrow irregular strips of this 
miscellaneous land type are mapped along the channels 
of the various creeks in the county. These strips make 
a considerable acreage, which is used almost entirely for 
pasture. They are usually subject to flooding one or 
more times each year. Alluvial land has great variation 
in texture and drainage — many areas have silty, wet, or 
sandy sods, and a few have loose, sandy, and droughty 
soils. Stream channels and sand and gravel bars are 
included. 

The surface is usually very hummocky and uneven. 
Soil development is limited because the material generally 
consists of recent stream deposits of silts and sands. 
The soils are usually deep. The quantity of grasses, 
shrubs, and trees is variable. 

Because of the hazard of flooding and the irregularity 
of the areas, this miscellaneous land type is suitable 
chielly for pasture and grazing. It provides very good 
grazing. A few areas could be improved by clearing 
and planting grasses and legumes. Clearing should not 
lie too close to regular stream channels, however. Shrubs. 
trees, and grass strips should be left to stabilize the 
channelways and to provide shade and shelter for live- 
stock. 

Capability unit, Ylw-1 ; range site, Overflow land. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MOXTAXA 

Table 2. — Approximatt acreagi and proportional* extent oftht soils 



19 



Soil 



Acres Percent 



Alluvial land 

Arnegard silt loam, to 2 percent slopes 

Amegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes 

Badla ads 

Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 percent slopes,- 
Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes, - 
Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent 

slopes 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent 

slopes 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent 

slopes 

Bainville- Wibaux complex, 15 to 40 percent 

slopes 

Chama silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 

Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes 
Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent 

slopes 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent 

slopes 

Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Cherry silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes. 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes. 

Cheyenne loam, to 5 percent slopes 

Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent 

slopes 

Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent 

slopes 

Farland silt loam, to 3 percent slopes 

Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 percent 

slopes 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 10 to 14 percent 

slopes 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent 

slopes 

Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent 

slopes 

Grail silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

Grail silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 

Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent 

slopes 

Lismas clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 60 percent 

slopes 

McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, to 1 percent 

slopes 

Midway-Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent 

slopes 



10, 396 

5. 271 

955 

35, 556 
5, 492 
7,692 

10, 409 

68, 174 

1,270 

16, 391 

16, 243 

65, 879 

477 

426 

1, 121 



Soil 



6. 
1. 
1. 
1. 

12. 



2. 
1L 



5, 942 
5, 556 
1, 661 

i . ;.i ii i 

500 

1, 317 


1. 
1. 

:! 

. l 

. 2 


1, 500 


.3 


2,000 
7,901 


. 4 
1. 4 


5, 989 
1, 515 


1. 
.3 


6, 446 


1. 1 


6, 761 


1. 2 


541 

3, 067 

800 


. 1 
. 5 
. 1 


4,209 


. 7 


12,399 


2. 2 


206 


(') 


1, 470 


. 3 



Midway-Moreau complex, 8 to 1 1 percent 
slopes 

Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent 
slopes 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, :; to 7 per- 
cent slopes 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8 to 11 per- 
cent slopes 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 

percent slopes 

Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 

Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 

Morton silt loam, -I to 7 percent slopes 

Morton-Arnesard silt loams, to 3 percent 

slopes 

Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent 

slopes 

Pierre- Lismas clays, 15 to 40 percent slopes- 
Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes 

Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 8 to 11 percent 

slopes 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent 

slopes 

Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 |"<- 

cent slopes 

Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent 

slopes 

Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Savage- Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes _ 

Searing loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes 

Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent slopes __ 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes 
Vebar fine sand}" loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes. 
Vebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes _ 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 per- 
cent slopes 

Wade silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes. 
Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes, 

Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 

Williams silt loam, 6 to 14 percent slopes 

Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes 

Roads, railroads, gravel pits, riverwash, 
building and town sites 

Total 



Acres 



Percent 



2, 307 


0. 4 


13, 294 


2. 3 


9, 871 


1. 7 


2, 306 


. 4 


650 

3, 072 

8, 190 

45, 018 


. 1 

. i 

1. 4 

7. 9 


II, 022 


2. 5 


4,000 
12, 399 

2, 444 
19, 385 

4, 050 

1 , 334 


. 7 

2. 2 
. 1 

3. 4 
. 9 

2 


5. 628 


1. 


2. 305 


. 4 


48, 308 


8. 5 


8, 134 
4, 043 

2, 314 

3, 797 

1, 367 
0, 718 
3, 245 

2, 000 


1. 4 

. i 
. 1 
. i 
.2 
1. 7 
. 6 
. 4 


540 

2, 349 

4, 647 

397 

863 

2, 245 


. 1 
. 4 

. 1 
2 

'. 4 


5,868 


1.0 


568, 960 


100. 



1 Less than 0. 1 percent . 



Arnegard series 

The Axnegard soils occur mostly in the northern and 
eastern parts of the county. They occupy valley flats, 
swales, and a few broad basins in the uplands. Nearby, on 
the upland slopes, are usually Morton and Chama soils. 
Nearly all of the Arnegard soils are under cultivation. 

Arnegard soils have developed from the silty wash of 
local alluvium. The fairly level to gentle slopes receive 
some runoff from higher areas, and the soil layers that 



have developed arc well marked. The surface soil is a 
dark-colored silt loam and has strong crumb structure. 
The subsoil layers have blocky to prismatic structure. 
Below it depth of 2 feet the silty soil parent material is 
streaked with an accumulation of lime. A dense cover 
of grass has contributed to the dark color and fertility 
of Arnegard soils. 

The high content of organic mailer in the thick surface 
layers, moderate permeability of the subsoils to air and 
water, and good workability are significant in Arnegard 
soils. 



20 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 194 3, NO. 1 



Tvpical profile: Arnegard silt loam: location, 100 feet 
SW. of XE. corner, sec. 1, T. 14 X.. R. 60 E.: 

Ajp to 7 inches 

Dark gravish-brown (10YR 4/2, drv) 2 to very dark 
grayish-brown (10 YR 2/1.5, moist) heavy silt loam 
with strong fine crumb structure: friable when moist, 
slightly hard when dry; lower boundary abrupt. 

A, 7 to 12 inches 

Dark gravish-brown (10YR 4 2, dry) to grayish- 
brown (10Y11 5/2, moist) heavy silt loam with 
moderate fine granular structure breaking to strong 
fine crumb structure: friable when moist; slightly 
hard when dry; lower boundary gradual. 

B-m 12 to 18 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silty 
clay loam with moderate medium and fine blocky 
structure; firm when moist: plastic and sticky when 
wet : lower boundarv gradual. 

B 2 o IS to 24 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) silty clay 
loam with weak medium prismatic breaking to 
moderate medium and fine blocky structure; firm 
when moist, plastic and sticky when wet; lower 
boundarv gradual. 

H 24 to 36 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) light silty 
clay loam; massive breaking to weak fine crumb 
structure: firm when moist, plastic and sticky when 
wet: effervesces strongly: lower boundary diffuse. 

(',,, 36 to 54 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2, moist) heavy silt loam; 
massive breaking to weak fine crumb structure; 
friable when moist, slightly plastic and slightly sticky 
when wet: effervesces strongly; lime spots set apart 
or segregated. 

D 54 to 60 inches 

Pale-olive (5Y 6/3, moist > heavy silt loam of weath- 
ered silty shale. 

Arnegard silt loam, to 2 percent slopes (Ab). — This 

soil lias the profile described for the Arnegard series. 
The hazard of water erosion is at a minimum, but the bare 
soil is subjeel to wind erosion. In some years, wet spots 
may delay cultivation. This soil is good for crops and 
very good for range. 

Capability unit, IIe-1 ; range site, Overflow land. 

Arnegard silt loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes (Ac). — This 
soil has a profile like that described for the Arnegard 
scries. Only a few areas occur, usually near the more 
nearly level Arnegard soil. Water erosion is a greater 
hazard on this soil than on Arnegard silt loam, to 2 
percent slopes. The bare soil is subject to wind erosion. 
Tins soil is good for crops, and very good for range. 

Capability unit, I lie I : range site, Overflow land. 



Badlands 

Badlands (Ba). — This miscellaneous land type is 
mapped in large areas in the northern and southwestern 
parts of the county. Badlands occupy steep, stream-cut 
areas where sol'l bedrock of shale and sandstone are 
widely exposed. Runoff is \w\ rapid, and permeability 
is very slow. Erosion is active, and little true soil 
development has taken place. Vegetation is limited to 
the bottom of draws, smooth benchlike areas, or slope- 
where soil can form or has nol been removed by erosion. 
The steep topography makes grazing difficult. Badlands 
are used chiefly lor wildlife and for watersheds. Thej 
are usually fairly well watered b\ seeps and springs. 



'Symbols represent Munsell color notation. 



On the soil map, the distinction between Badlands and 
the Rockland-Bainville complex and the Rockland- 
Flasher complex is very general. The difference is based 
largely on degree of slope, amount of stream dissection, 
and presence of rock outcrop. 

The development of springs, the building of roads, and 
the most advantageous location of fences and salt would 
help to improve areas of this land type. Before making 
these improvements, farmers should consider the cost in 
relation to the value of the grazing to be obtained. They 
should also know the range condition of the native pas- 
tures. 

Capability unit, VIIIs-1 ; not classified in a range site. 



Bainville series 

Bainville soils are mapped in many places in the county. 
Where mapped in complex with other soils, they are mostly 
in sections of grazing land. Where mapped alone, they 
are located mostly on the farms and to a smaller extent on 
the ranges. Bainville soils are associated with many soils 
that are better for farming, as the Morton, Chama, and 
Regent soils. They are not suited to tillage. If the 
slopes above 9 percent are farmed, they are soon eroded to 
shale. About half the areas are in native range: they 
should be left in this use if possible. 

The Bainville soils are thinly developed over soft silt- 
stone and sandstone (fig. 4). Shale outcrops are common. 
Surface soils are thin (4 inches or less) and are silty to 
slightly sandy. Runoff is mostly rapid. The grass cover 
varies from sparse to dense. 

The content of organic matter in Bainville soils is low. 
The permeability to air and moisture of subsoil layers is 
moderate to moderately slow. Workability is usually 
fair to poor, chiefly because of lack of organic matter, 
shallowness of profile, and presence of parent material 
within plow depth. Bainville soils are subject to severe 
water erosion; they are susceptible to wind erosion on 
exposed knobs and hills. 

In many places this soil is farmed with other soils that 
are better for crops, and the same practices are used on 
all areas. In most of these areas, Bainville soils should 
be planted to permanent grass by seeding crested wheat- 
grass or other suitable grasses for pasture or hay. 

Typical profile: Bainville silt loam: 

A, to 4 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) silt loam with 
strong fine crumb structure; friable when moist; 
effervesces strongly; lower boundarv clear. 

B 4 to 11 inches 

Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4, moist) silt loam with 
shale fragments; friable when moist: effervesces 
strongly. 

C 11 to 36 inches 

Light-brown (2.5Y 6/3, moist) bedded and weathered 
silts; many prominent very coarse yellowish-brown 
mottles. 

D 36 to 42 inches 

Unweathered soft siltstone with thin strata of sand- 
stone in places: hard when dry. 

Bainville silt loam, 6 to 9 percent slopes (Bb).— Tin- 
soil has the profile described for the Bainville scries. It 
occurs mainly within larger areas of soils that are better 
suited to crops. A moderate area is in crops; a smaller 
area is in native sod. Erosion b\ wind and water is 
severe on tilled areas. The soil is suitable for only limited 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



21 



or occasional cultivation because it erodes easily. Soils 
in native cover make good range. 

Capability unit IYe-1 ; range site. Silt} land. 

Bainville silt loam, 10 to 14 percent siopes (Be). — This 
soil has a profile like that described for the Bainville 
series. It occurs mainly as small areas within other soils 
that are better suited to crops. The total area in crops 
is moderate; smaller areas are in native sod. The steep 
slopes cause severe erosion and limit the use of this soil 
for cultivation. The areas in native sod make good 
range. 

Capability unit, VTe-1; range site, Silty land. 

Bainville silt loam, 15 to 40 percent slopes (Bd). — This 
soil has a profile similar to that described for the Bainville 
scries. Some of the steep areas of this soil are in fields 
with better croplands. The individual areas are small, 
but the total acreage in the county is considerable. Most 
areas formerly used for crops have been seeded to perma- 
nent grasses. This soil is not suited to cultivation, be- 
cause it erodes easily. Sod areas provide good to fair 
range. Shale outcrops with little or no grass cover are 
common. 

Capability unit, VTe-1 ; range site, Silty land. 



Bainville- Chama complex 

In areas where Bainville and Chama soils are so closely 
associated or intermixed that it was not possible to 
separate them on a map of the scale used, they are mapped 
as a soil complex. Typical Bainville and Chama soils 
are described elsewhere in this report. This complex 
occurs generally throughout the county but is chiefly in 
the northern and western parts. Areas are hilly and steep 
and are used for grazing. In a few places they are culti- 
vated, mostly as small steep tracts within fields that are 
better suited to crops (see fig. 4). 

The Bainville soil is thinly developed on soft siltstone 
and sandstone. Runoff is medium to rapid, and per- 
meability is moderate. The surface soil is only a few 
inches thick. Below this layer is the subsoil, which 
merges with the parent shale at shallow or very shallow 
depths. The grass cover ranges from sparse to dense. 

The Chama sod is moderately deep over the soft shale. 
The surface soil has moderate crumb structure. The 
structure of the subsoil layers is weakly prismatic or 
blocky. rsually there is a thin, streaked, and whitish 
accumulation of lime and other salts in the subsoil at 
the place where it merges with parent soft shale. The 
native grass is usually dense. 

Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15 to 30 percent slopes 
(Be). — The soils of this complex are variable. From 
5 to 15 percent of the total area may have slopes of broken 
shale. Because of its steepness and broken slopes, this 
complex is not suited to cultivation. It comprises, 
now ever, some of the most extensive areas of good grazing 
in the county. 

Capacility unit, VIe—1; range site, Silty land. 



Bainville-Flasher complex 

Areas of Bainville silt loam and Flasher loamy fine 
sand that are too closely intermingled to separate on the 
soil map of the scale used are mapped together as a com- 



plex. Bainville and Flasher soils are described elsewhere 
in this report. The Bainville-Flasher soil complex is 
widely scattered over the county. Steeply sloping range 
accounts for the largest areas; the tilled area is small. 

Bainville soil is thinly developed on soft siltstone, or 
in some places over a thin Strata of siltstone and sand- 
stone: whereas Flasher soil is thinly developed over 
sandstone. The surface layers in both soils are only a 
few inches thick. The subsoil merges with the parent 
shale or sandstone at shallow or very shallow depths. 
The stand of grass varies from sparse to dense. 

The content of organic matter in the surface -oils is 
low. Runoff is medium to rapid. Permeability to air 
and water is moderate to moderately rapid in the subsoil 
layers of this complex. Because of the steepness of the 
slopes, these soils are subject to severe erosion and are 
unsuited to cultivation. Soils in this complex, however, 
are good for grazing. 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 6 to 14 percent slopes 
(Bg). — The individual soils in this complex have been 
previously described. The complex is inextensive and 
is interspersed with areas of other soils that are better 
suited to crops. A few areas remain in native grasses. 
Because of the hazard of erosion, this soil complex is not 
suited to cultivation. 

Capability unit, VIe-1 ; range site, Silty land. 

Bainville-Flasher complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes 
(Bh). — The soils of this complex occupy steep areas of 
good rangeland. A very small area is tilled. This complex 
is not suited to cultivation, because it is steep and easily 
eroded. 

Capability unit, VIe-3; range site, Thin breaks. 



Bainville- Wibaux complex 

Where Bainville and Wibaux soils are so intermingled 
that they cannot be separated on a map of the scale used, 
they are mapped together as a complex. The soils that 
make up the complex are described elsewhere in this 
report. The complex occurs in scattered areas, chiefly 
in the northwestern part, where it occurs on large areas of 
hilly scoria rangeland. A very small acreage is tilled, but 
this consists of other soils that were included in mapping 
this complex. 

The Bainville soils have developed over relatively soft 
siltstone and sandstone, and the Wibaux soils, over scoria 
or burned, hard-baked shale. Both have a thin surface 
soil and subsoil and merge 1 with the underlying rock at 
shallow or very shallow depths. Outcrops of shale and 
scoria are common on the steep slopes. The soils are 
moderately permeable; runoff is medium to rapid. They 
support a fairly sparse to dense cover of grasses and other 
plants. The content of organic matter in the surface 
layer of Wibaux and Bainville soils is low; the thickness 
of the layer averages about 3 to 4 inches. The total 
moisture-holding capacity is limited by the shallow depth 
of the Wibaux soils and, to some extent, by that of the 
Bainville soils. 

Bainville-Wibaux complex, 15 to 40 percent slopes 
(Bk). — The shallow upland soils of this complex are 
subject to moderate erosion. They are not suited to 
cultivation, but they furnish good to fair grazing. They 
are moderate in extent in the county. 

Capability unit. VIe-3; range site, Thin breaks. 



22 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



Chama series 

The soils of the Chama series are mapped in many places 
throughout the county. They occur alone and in associa- 
tion with Bainville. Morton, and other soils (fig. 4). 
About a third of this soil series is tilled. Large areas occur 
locally as patches in sections of rangeland. Most Chama 
soils are fair for crops. 

Chama soils have developed on soft siltstone and sand- 
stone. They are usually moderately sloping, and runoff 
is medium. The surface soil usually has moderate crumb 
si ruct nre. Subsoil layers have weakly prismatic to blocky 
structure. A thin whitish layer occurs in the lower part 
of the subsoil where lime has accumulated. The subsoil 
merges with underlying yellow and drab-colored shales 
and sandstone. The soils have developed under a dense 
grass vegetation. 

The content of organic matter in the surface layer is 
medium. Although the thickness of the surface layer 
varies, it is usually about 6 inches. Permeability of the 
subsoil to air and water is moderate. Workability is good, 
except for stony types, which usually are not tilled but 
are suitable for range. Chama soils are subject to moder- 
ate wind and water erosion on exposed slopes. 

included with Chama soils are small spots that are 
usually lower in productivity or are otherwise different. 
For example, some of these areas are severely eroded; 
some are on slopes that are much steeper than the rest of 
the unit : or some have an occasional shale outcrop. There 
are also small included patches of Bainville or Midway 
soils. 

Chama soils are typically 2 or 3 feet deep over un- 
weathered shale. In many areas of Chama soils, the 
surface soil is thin and light colored. In some places this 
change is caused by erosion; in others, by an inclusion of 
Bainville soils. Some of the included soils are 16 inches 
thick, whereas others are 4 feet thick over the shale. 
The variation in depth to shale is the result of different 
rates of soil development, or the merging of Chama soil 
with Bainville or Morton soils. In places it is the result 
of erosion. Where Chama soil merges with Flasher soil, 
the texture is often a fine sandy loam. Where the Chama 
soils are closely associated with Midway or Moreau soils, 
they approach a silty clay loam in texture. 

Typical profile: Chama silt loam; location, S\V 1 ,S\V 1 4 
sec. 26, T. 17 X., R. 59 K. : 

A„ to 5 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silt 
loam will) moderate fine crumb structure; soft when 
dry, friable when moist ; lower boundary abrupt. 

I',. ."> to It) inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YE 4/2, moist) silt loam 
with weak coarse prismatic structure; friable when 
moist, soft when dry; lower boundarv clear. 

l: , . 10 to 17 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) silt loam with 
weak coarse prismatic structure; friable when 
moist, soft when dry: strongly calcareous; lower 
boundary gradual. 
17 o> 30 inches 

Light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) silt loam with 
weak coarse blocky structure; friable when moist, 
slightly laird when dry: strongly calcareous; lower 
boundarv gradual. 

(' 30 to 12 inches 

Lighl olive-brown (2.5Y 5 l, moist) silt loam; 

massive; friable when moist, soft when dry. 
I) 12 inches 

Pale-yellow <2..">Y 7 1. moist) soft silly shale. 



Chama silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes (Ca). — This soil 
has the profile described for the Chama series. It is 
usually on the undulating to rolling upper slopes in 
association with Morton and Bainville soils. The Morton 
soil is on the gentler slopes, and the Bainville soil is on 
the hilltops or steep slopes. Where it is associated only 
with the Bainville soils, this soil occupies the lower gentle 
slopes below the Bainville soils (fig. 4). Chama silt loam. 
4 to 7 percent slopes, is fan for crops. 

Capability unit, IIIc-1 : range site. Silty land. 

Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Cb). — 
This soil contains stone and pieces of petrified wood; 
otherwise its profile resembles that described for the 
Chama series. The fragments range from small to large 
and are scattered on the surface and throughout the pro- 
file. Their presence usually makes the soil unsuited to 
cultivation. Most of the very limited area of this soil is 
in range grasses. In places the stone has been removed; 
these areas, now classed with nonstony lands, are cul- 
tivated. Chama stony silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes, is 
good for range grazing. Most of this soil is in the south- 
western part of the county. 

Capability unit. Vie— 1 ; range site, Silty land. 

Chama stony silt loam, 10 to 30 percent slopes (Ccj . — This 
soil has a profile similar to that previously described for 
Chama soils, but the slopes are usually steep and the soil 
is stony and not suited to cultivation. Fragments of 
petrified wood of various size are scattered on the soil and 
throughout the profile. Limited areas of this soil occur 
in the southeastern part of the county. The soil is 
suitable for range. 

Capability unit, VIe-1; range site, Silty land. 



Chama- Bainville complex 

( hama-Bainville silt loams, the soils of this complex, 
occur over most of the county. The largest areas are in 
the northern part, where they are interspersed with areas 
of steeper soils used for range. A few areas are sur- 
rounded by soils that are better suited to crops. The 
individual soils of this complex have been described 
previously in this report. 

The Bainville soils are thinly developed on soft siltstone 
and sandstone. Runoff is medium to rapid. The surface 
soil and subsoil are each only a few inches thick. The 
subsoil merges with parent shale at shallow or very shallow 
depths. The grass cover ranges from sparse to dense. 

The Chama soils are better developed than the Bainville 
and deeper over the soft shales. The surface soil has 
moderate crumb structure, but the subsurface layers have 
weakly prismatic or blocky structure. The lower part 
of the subsoil usually contains white streaks and spots of 
accumulated lime just above the parent soft siltstone. 
The native grass vegetation is usually dense. 

Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Cd).— 
The individual soils that make up (his complex have been 
previously described. These soils are used for crops and 
range. They are poor to fair for crops and good for 
grazing. Cultivation is limited by the susceptibility 
of the soils to erosion. 

Capability unit, IVe 1: range site. Silty land. 

Chama Bainville silt loams, 10 to 14 percent slopes 
(Ce).- Individual soils in this complex have been pre- 
viously described. This complex is mostly in native 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MOM \\ A 



23 



grasses, although a few areas are tilled. Because of severe 
erosion, these soils are suited only to limited cultivation, 
and their value for crops is fairly low. 

Capability unit, IVe-l ; range site, Silty land. 



Cherry series 

Cherry soils are chiefly in the northern part of the 
county, where they occupy sloping terraces, fans, and 
foot slopes in the narrow valleys and along the borders of 
the wider valleys. Some areas of these soils are tilled, but 
much of the acreage is left in grass and used for range or 
wild hay. Some of the ( Iherry soils are salty. 

Cherry soils have developed on local silty alluvium. 
The surface soils have a weak crumb structure. The 
subsoil layers have weak prismatic to weak blocky struc- 
ture and merge indistinctly with the parent silty alluvium 
that is without structure. Runoff ranges from medium 
on the lower slopes to rapid on the moderate slopes. The 
grass cover is mostly dense. 

Saline phases of Cherry soils have developed from 
alluvium washed from areas where the shale and sand- 
stone naturally carry alkali salts. Development of soil 
layers is very weak. 

Organic-matter content of Cherry soils is medium. 
The usual surface soil depth is about 6 inches. Perme- 
ability of the subsoil to air and water is moderate. Work- 
ability is good. These soils are moderateby susceptible to 
wind and water erosion. Under native grasses the soils 
are good for range. 

Typical profile : Cherry silt loam ; location, NE^NE^sec. 
32, T. 19 X., R. 60 E.: * 

Aj to 4 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silt loam 
with strong fine crumb structure; friable when moist: 
lower boundary clear. 

H 2 4 to 9 inches 

Very dark gray (10YR 3/1, moist) silt loam; weak 
medium prismatic structure breaking to moderate 
fine blocky structure; friable when moist; lower 
boundary abrupt. 

B ;J 9 to 16 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) silt loam; 
weak medium prismatic structure breaking to moder- 
ate fine blocky structure; friable when moist; effer- 
vesces strongly; lower boundary gradual. 

C Hi to 44 inches 

Light olive-brown (2.5Y' 5/4, moist) silt loam; weak 
coarse blocky or very coarse prismatic structure; 
friable when moist; effervesces violently. 

Typical profile: Cherry silt loam, saline; location, G60 
feet NE. of Sji corner, sec, 8, T. 18 N., R. 60 E.: 

A„ 1o 6 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silt loam; 
weak coarse platy structure breaking to weak fine 
crumb structure; slightly hard when dry, friable when 
moist; white salt efflorescence forms on the surface 
in places as the soils dry; effervesces slightly; lower 
boundary abrupt. 

A 3 6 to 9 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silt loam; 
weak coarse blocky structure; slightly hard when dry, 
friable when moist; effervesces strongly: lower 
boundary clear. 

C 9 to 48 inches 

Light yellowish-brown (2.5Y 6/4, moist) silt loam; 
massive; slightly hard when dry, friable when moist; 
faint fine white streaks of lime and other salts through- 
out this layer: effervesces strongly. 



Cherry silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (Cg). — This soil 
has the profile previously described as typical for the 
Cherry series. It is of moderate extent, and a part is 
under cultivation. Many ureas are used for wild hay or 
are in native grass range. The soil is good for crops or 
range. 

Capability unit, IIe-1; range site, Overflow land. 

Cherry silt loam, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Ck). — Tins soil 
has a profile similar to that previously described as typical 
for the Cherry series. It is of small extent ami is used 
about equally for cultivation and for pasture or range. 
This soil is poor to fair for crops, but it makes good range- 
land. It is suitable only For limited or occasional cul- 
tivation because of severe erosion hazard. 

Capability unit , [IIe-1; range site, Silly land. 

Cherry silt loam, saline, to 3 percent slopes (Ch).— 
This soil has a profile previously described for saline soils 
of the Cherry series. It is not extensive and occurs chiefly 
along C. S. Creek and its tributaries in i he nort hern pail of 
the county. The wash from saline shales has contributed 
to the makeup of this soil. Saltgrass is common, and in 
the fall, roadside cuts show an accumulation of white salt 
in the profile. This soil usually is not suited to cultivation 
because of its salt content, but it is good for wild hay and 
range. The soil may include narrow strips of local stream 
bottoms and brushy areas. 

Capability unit, VIs-1 ; range site, Saline lowland. 

Cherry silt loam, saline, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Cm).— 
This soil lias a profile similar to that previously described 
for saline soils of the Cherry series. It is located chiefly 
along C. S. Creek and its tributaries in the northern part, 
of the county. The wash from saline shales has contrib- 
uted to the makeup of this sod. Saltgrass is apparent. 
This soil is not suitable for cultivation because of salt and 
the hazard of severe erosion. It makes good range, 
Practically all of the limited area of this soil is in native 
grasses. 

Capability unit, VIs-1 ; range site, Saline lowland. 



Cheyenne series 

Cheyenne soils occupy terrace and bench remnants on 
the uplands, chiefly along Beaver Creek Valley, and a 
few isolated sections at some distance from the valley 
(fig. 4). Most of the soils are nearly level to gently 
sloping. The area in cropland and pasture, or range, is 
about the same. Cheyenne soils are fair to good for 
crops and good for range. 

The soils of this series are moderately well developed 
from gravelly and fine materials in old alluvium. There 
is little or no runoff. Surface soil layers have weak crumb 
structure. The upper subsoil layers have moderate 
prismatic or blocky structure and gravelly loam texture. 
The deeper subsoil is more gravelly and contains a whitish 
or streaked zone of lime. This lime accumulation merges 
to gravelly loam parent material, which in places includes 
some soft shale fragments. Depth of grave] over shale 
and sandstone varies from 6 to 15 feet. The grass cover 
is moderate to dense. 

The content of organic matter in the surface soil is 
usually medium to high. The surface soil is about 6 
inches thick. The subsoil and substrata vary from 
gravelly to slightly gravelly. Moisture-holding capacity 
is slightly limited in Cheyenne soils because of their coarse 



24 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



lower layers. A few areas have a surface texture of fine 
sandy loam, and some areas have semicemented limy 
gravelly layers in the subsoil. 

Typical profile: Chevenne loam; location, 1,000 feet W. 
of XE. corner, sec, 7, T. 15 X., R. 60 E.: 

An to 4 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10 YR 3/2, moist) loam; 
weak fine and medium crumb structure; friable when 
moist: lower boundary clear. 

A i: 4 to 6 inches 

Very dark brown (10 YR 2 2, moist) coarse silt loam; 
weak fine and medium blocky structure; friable 
when moist. 

B2 6 to 12 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) coarse 
silt loam containing some gravel; moderate medium 
prismatic structure breaking to weak medium 
blocky structure; friable to firm when moist, slightly 
hard when dry. 

C ca 12 to 20 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4 2, moist) gravelly 
coarse silt loam with weak medium blocky structure; 
friable when moist; stronglv calcareous. 

C 20 to 40 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) gravelly sandy 
loam; massive; friable when moist; strongly cal- 
careous. 

D 40 to 58 inches 

Light, brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/3, moist) heavy silt 
loam: massive; strongly calcareous. 

Cheyenne loam, to 5 percent slopes (Cn). — This soil 
has the profile described for the Cheyenne series. It is 
dec]) to medium deep. The hazard of wind erosion is 
moderate when the sod is tilled. Permeability to air and 
water is moderate. 

Capability unit, IIIe-2; range site, Silty land. 



Cushman series 

The Cushman soils occur in limited areas in the some- 
what drier, southwestern part of the county. Most 
slopes are nearly level to gentle, although moderate slopes 
occur iu a few places. The soils of this series are fair as 
cropland and good as rangeland. A large part is culti- 
vated. 

Cushman soils have formed on a fine-textured mixture 
of windblown silt and old valley alluvium. They are well 
developed. The surface soil has a weak crumb structure. 
The subsoil layers are usually strongly developed and 
have prismatic structure. Runoff generally is slight but 
is moderate on some of the slopes. The grass cover is 
moderate to dense. 

The organic-matter content is medium, and the surface 
soil is from 1 to • > inches thick. Permeability of subsoil 
layers to air and water is moderate. Cushman soils are 
subject to wind erosion and to some water erosion if 
cultivated. They occur in an area where droughts are 
a little more frequenl than in the rest of the county. 
The nearby Badlands and areas of Lismas and Pierre 
soils probably contribute to hot, droughty conditions at 
t hues. 

Typical profile: Cushman loam; location. XW'VXK 1 , 
sec. l!t. T. 12 X., K. 58 E.: 

A p to '■> inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YK 3 2, moist) loam; 
weak coarse blocky breaking to moderate very fine 
crumb structure; friable when moist : lower boundary 
abrupt. 



B, 9 to 24 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silty 
clay loam with strong medium prismatic breaking to 
strong medium blocky structure; friable when moist, 
slightly stick}- and slightly plastic when wet; lower 
boundarv clear. 

B 3 24 to 28 inches 

Brown (10 YR 5/3, moist) silty clay loam: strong 
coarse prismatic breaking to strong coarse blocky 
structure: friable when moist, slightly sticky and 
slightlv plastic when wet. 

C ca 28 to 40 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) silt loam with 
prominent medium-sized white lime mottles: massive; 
effervesces violentlv. 

C 40 to 66 inches 

Fine sandy loam and loamy fine sand: effervesces 
strongly. 

Cushman loam, deep variant, to 3 percent slopes 

(Co). — This soil has the profile previously described as 
typical for the Cushman series. A great part is under 
cultivation. 

Capability unit, Ille^t; range site, Silty land. 

Cushman loam, deep variant, 4 to 7 percent slopes 
(Cp). — This soil has a profile that is deeper but otherwise 
similar to that previously described for the Cushman 
series. Most areas are in native range. Textures vary 
from silt loam to fine sandy loam in places, and this sandy 
texture increases the hazard of wind erosion on cultivated 
areas. 

Capability unit, IIfe-4; range site, Silty land. 



Farland series 

Farland soils are on low terraces bordering Beaver Creek. 
Most areas are under cultivation, but some remain in 
pasture or range. 

Farland soils have developed from silty alluvium de- 
posited by the larger drainage systems, such as Beaver 
Creek. The surface sod has moderate and strong crumb 
structure; the subsoil layers have moderate prismatic 
structure. The substrata layers consist of silty materials 
and have a well-developed whitish or streaked zone where 
lime has accumulated. If not cultivated, Farland soils 
support a dense grass cover. 

The content of organic matter is high in the Farland 
soils. They are moderately permeable to air and water 
and have good moisture-holding capacity. Workability 
is good. There is some hazard of wind erosion in culti- 
vated areas. 

Typical profile: Farland silt loam: location. XE% sec. 
26, T. 13 X., R. 60 E.: 

A| P to 5 inches 

Very dark brown (10YR 2 2, moist) silt loam: strong 
medium crumb structure; friable when moist; lower 
boundary abrupt. 

B-> 5 to 12 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YK 3 2, moisl | silt loam; 
moderate medium prismatic structure breaking to 
moderate medium and fine blocky structure; friable 
when moist; lower boundarv abrupt. 

B, 12 to 16 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 12, moist) silt loam; 
friable when moist; effervesces strongly; lower 
boundary gradual. 

C cn 16 to 2 1 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 1 2. moist) loam; abun- 
dant lime spots; weak subangular blocky structure: 
friable when moist: effervesces violently; lower 
boundary gradual. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



25 



C 24 to 30 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4 2, moist) loam; friable 
when moist; effervesces strongly. 

Farland silt loam, to 3 percent slopes (Fa). — Much of 
this soil is under cultivation, hut some areas remain in 
pasture or range. This is one of the good cropland soils of 
the county. It is very good for range. On the nearly level 
to gentle slopes, runoff is low or nearly absent. The usual 
thickness of the surface layer is about 6 inches. 

Capability unit. I It* 1 : range site, Overflow land. 



Farland-Harlem complex 

This soil complex occurs mainly on the low terraces and 
bottom lands bordering Beaver Creek. It consists of areas 
of Farland and Harlem soils that are too closely inter- 
mingled to separate on a map of the scale used. They are 
therefore mapped together. The development of the soil 
profile layers varies. The Farland soil has well-developed 
layers, and the Harlem soil has little or no development or 
layering. The surface soils vary in depth but are usually 
thick. A typical profile of the Farland soil has been 
described for the Farland series. The following profile 
is typical of the Harlem soil in the complex. 

Profile of Harlem silt loam; location, XE^SE 1 ^ sec. 26, 
T. 1.5 \\, R. 59 E.: 

Aip to 8 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) silt loam 
with strong medium and fine crumb structure; friable 
when moist; effervesces slightly; lower boundary 
abrupt. 

A-C 8 to Hi inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4,2, moist) very fine 
sandy loam with weak very coarse prismatic struc- 
ture; friable when moist; effervesces stronglv. 

C 16 to 3(5 inches 

Stratified loam and fine sandy loam; loose to friable 
when moist; effervesces strongly. 

Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 percent slopes (Fb).— 

Much of this complex is under cultivation, but some small 
isolated areas along Beaver Creek are in native pasture. 
Some areas of Alluvial land are included witli this com- 
plex. Runoff is variable, but the surface drainage is 
generally good. A few areas near the stream channels 
may be flooded at times. These areas are small and 
irregular. Grasses and shrubs grow abundantly; in 
places there are a few trees. 

Capability unit, IIe-1 ; range site. Overflow land. 



Flasher series 

Flasher soils are scattered throughout the county and 
occupy a fairly large total area. Part of this sandy 
acreage is tilled, but most of it is in native grasses. 

These soils are thinly developed on sandstone and sandy 
shale. Runoff is restricted because the very sandy text ure 
permits rapid intake of water. The surface soil is thin 
and has very weak crumb structure. The subsoil layers 
are equally thin and have weak blocky structure. In 
many places the parent sandstone lies within a foot of 
the surface. These subsoil and parent material are strati- 
fied and were derived from highly variable broken sand- 
stone and soft siltstone. 

The fields are hummocky where sandstone lies at or 



near the surface. Drainage is irregular. Like Bainville 
-nib. Flasher soils are low in organic-matter content. 
Permeability of the subsoil to air and water is moderately 
rapid. Moisture capacity is mostly limited by shallow- 
soil depths. Workability is lair to poor. The soils are 
subject to severe wind erosion if tilled. 

Typical profile: Flasher loamy line sand; location, 200 
feet E. of XE. corner, sec. S. T. 13 X.. R. 59 E.: 

Ai to 2 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YE 3/2, moist) loamy 

fine sand; wind stratified; very friable when moist: 
effervesces slightly; lower boundary abrupt. 

B 2 to 7 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3 2, moist) light 
tine sandy loam: weak coarse blocky structure: 
stratified; very friable when moist: effervesces 
slightly; lower boundary clear. 

C ca / to 20 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YE 4 2, moist) loamy fine 
sand; very weak blocky structure; stratified: very 
friable when moist: effervesces violently; lower 
boundary gradual and broken. 

D 20 to 48 incites 

Discontinuous broken bands of hard sandstone that 
rest on weathered soft sandstone at various depths: 
effervesces violently. 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Fc).— 
This soil has the profile described as typical for Flasher 
soils. Many of the areas tire under cultivation, but some 
still remain in native grass. This soil is not well suited 
to cultivation, because the risk of wind erosion is great. 
Many areas of this soil are near Vebar soils that have a 
similar hazard. This soil makes good range. 

Capability unit, IVe-1; range site, Sandy land. 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 10 to 14 percent slopes (Fd).— 
This soil has a profile similar to that previously described 
for the Flasher series. A few areas are tilled, but most 
of this soil remains in grass. This soil is not suitable for 
cultivation; it has steep slopes and is subject to wind 
erosion. Areas in native grass make good range. 

Capability unit, VIe-3; range site. Shallow hind. 

Flasher loamy fine sand, 15 to 40 percent slopes (Fe).— 
This soil occupies steep range areas. Very little if any 
is under cultivation. It has a profile similar to that 
previously described for the Flasher series. It litis, how- 
ever, more sandstone outcrop and a more limited grass 
cover. Areas of this soil are fail' to good for grazing. 

Capability unit, VIe-3; range site, Shallow land. 



Glendive series 

Glendive soils occur in a few narrow areas, chiefly on 
alluvial fan slopes bordering bottom lands along Glendive 
Creek in the southwestern part of the county. Sonic 
small included areas of alluvial soils tire subject to flooding 
at times. 

The Glendive soils are developing in sandy local 
alluvium. The surface layer has weak crumb structure. 
Surface and subsoil layers merge indistinctly and range 
in texture from sandy to very sandy. The grass cover is 
dense. 

The organic-matter content in these sandy soils varies, 
but it is mosth medium to low. Permeability of subsoil 
layers to air and water is rapid, and the soils are often 
droughty. Workability ranges from good to poor. 



26 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943. XO. 1 



Typical profile: Glendive fine sandy loam: 

A, to 8 inches 

Grayish-brown (dry) fine sandy loam; weak crumb 

structure: friable. 
Bi 8 to 14 inches 

Light brownish-gray (dry) loamy fine sand; loose to 

slightly coherent. 
B.. ca 14 to 23 inches 

Light brownish-gray (dry) loamy fine sand; effervesces 

moderatelv. 
C 23 to 40 inches 

Stratified incoherent gray sand, loam, and very fine 

sandy loam; effervesces moderately. 

Glendive fine sandy loam, 2 to 6 percent slopes (Ga).- — 
This soil has the profile described for the Glendive series. 
Practically all of it is used for hay and pasture. This 
soil is only fair for crops. It is subject to wind erosion 
and occurs in small, isolated, and irregular areas. It is 
good for range. Productivity depends on the range 
condition. If this soil is cultivated, dryland grasses 
may be seeded, such as crested wheatgrass, for pasture 
or hay. A few of the better areas ma}' grow alfalfa or 
swectclover. 

( Japability unit, IIIe-2; range site. Overflow land. 



Grail series 

The soils of the Grail series are mostly in the southern 
part of the county on valley flats, swales, gentle slopes, 
and a few broad basins in the uplands. Nearby on the 
upland slopes are Morton and Midway soils (fig. 4). 

Soils of the Grail series have developed from a silty- 
clayey mixture of local alluvium. Surface layers have 
moderate granular structure. Subsoil layers have the 
moderate prismatic structure typical of well-developed 
sods. The lower subsoil has whitish splotched or streaked 
layers where lime and possibly other salts accumulate. 
The entire profile is moderately fine textured. Runoff 
on the nearly level to gentle slopes is slow to medium. 
Grasses grow densely on this soil. 

Grail soils have a high organic-matter content. The 
average thickness of surface soil layers is 7 inches. Per- 
meability of subsoil layers to air and water is moderate or 
moderately slow. Workability is fair. The soils can be 
worked best under a fairly narrow range of moisture 
conditions. If tilled, the sloping areas are subject to 
water erosion. If cultivated, the gentle slopes are 
subject mainly to wind erosion. 

Typical profile: Grail silt \ clav loam; location. WW 
corner of sec. 16, T. 12 X., R. 59 E.: 

A» I) to 2 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YB 3 2. moist) silty clay 
loam: strong fine crumb structure: friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and plastic when wet ; lower 
boundary clear. 

\ 2 to 8 inches 

Black (10YR 2 I. moist) silty clay loam; weak fine 
prismatic structure breaking to moderate fine and 
medium granular structure; friable when moist, 
slightly sticky and plastic when wet; lower boundary 
dual. 

H, 8 to is inches 

Black i\i)\ I; 2 I. moist) silty clay loam; moderate 
fine prismatic structure breaking to moderate fine 
blocky and medium granular structure; friable when 



moist, slightly sticky and plastic when wet: lower 
boundarv diffuse. 

Bo 18 to 28 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3 2, moist) silty 
clay loam; moderate medium prismatic structure 
breaking to strong fine blocky structure; firm when 
moist, slightly sticky and plastic when wet: lower 
boundarv diffuse. 

B. 28 to 34 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silty clay 
loam; moderate medium prismatic structure breaking 
to strong fine blocky structure; firm when moist, 
slightly sticky and slightly plastic when wet; ef- 
fervesces slightly; lower boundary diffuse. 

C 34 to 42 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4 2, moist) silty clay 
loam; weak medium blocky structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and plastic when wet ; ef- 
fervesces strongly. 

Grail silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes (Gb). — This 
sod has a profile similar to that described for the Grail 
series. It is good for crops and very good for range. 
Most of the sod is under cultivation, but a few areas 
remain in pasture. Included in this mapping unit are a 
few patches in the southeastern part of the county where 
the sod texture is sdty clay. These patches are in level 
basins and are somewhat imperfectly drained. However, 
they are usually cropped except in the very wettest years. 

Capability unit. IIe-1 : range site. Overflow land. 

Grail silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes (Gc). — This 
sod has a profile similar to that described for the Grad 
series. The areas are very limited in extent and are 
mainly in pasture. This sod is suitable for cultivation. 
It is fair to good for crops and is good for range. 

Capability unit, IIIe-1 ; range site. Overflow laud. 



Gravelly terrace remnants 

Gravelly terrace remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes 

(Gd). — This miscellaneous land type is on steep benches 
on the uplands bordering the valley of Beaver Creek. 
It consists of remnants of ancient bench lands that are 
being cut away by natural erosion. 

This land type is a mixture of shallow and gravelly soils 
that cannot be separated on the map of the scale used in 
this report. The sods are thinly developed on soft silt- 
stone. They are mixed with other sods associated with 
gravelly fine earth deposited in ancient times on benches. 
Runoff ranges from slow to medium. 

Soils of this miscellaneous land type have thin surface 
layers and a low content of organic matter. In places 
they are shallow over droughty gravel layers. The 
thickness of the gravel over the underlying shale and 
sandstone is highly variable. Much of this land type 
consists of Bainville soils, described elsewhere, and of 
included Beaverton soils not described separately in this 
survey. 

Because of steep and broken slopes. Gravelly terrace 
remnants, 5 to 40 percent slopes, is not suited to cultiva- 
tion, although it supplies good to fair grazing. The few 
acres now under cultivation should be planted to perma- 
nent grass or seeded to pasture. Drought-resistaul grasses. 
such as crested wheatgrass, are well suited. 

Capability unit, VIe-3; range site. Thin breaks. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



27 



Lismas clay-Shale outcrop complex 

This complex is extensive in the extreme southwestern 
pari of the county. It consists of areas of Lismas clay and 
Shale outcrop and occupies rolling to rough stream- 
dissected areas. The slopes are mostly steep. 

Lismas clay is thinly developed over heavy clay shale. 
Runoff is very rapid. The thin surface soil consists, for 
the most part, of grayish-brown silty clay. Olive-brown, 
dense, massive clay mixed wit h parent shale is a few inches 
io about a foot below the surface. The native vegetation 
is chiefly a sparse cover of western wheatgrass, shrubs, and 
a savannahlike growth of Rocky Mountain cedar. 

Profile description of Lismas clay; location, large uni- 
form areas in the southwestern part of the county: 

A, to 2 inches 

Grayish-brown, loose, silty clay; usually noncalcareous. 
A c 2 to 7 inches 

Olive-brown, dense, massive clay. 
C 7 inches + 

Partly decomposed, olive-brown or gray clay shale. 

Lismas clay-Shale outcrop, 20 to 60 percent slopes 

(La). — The content of organic matter is low in the surface 
soil of this complex. Permeability to air and water in the 
subsoil is very slow, although some water enters through 
the large cracks in the soil. Erosion is severe. This soil 
complex is very poor for grazing and is not suited to 
cultivation. 

Capability unit, VJIs-2; range site, Shale and clay. 



McKenzie-Hoven complex 

McKenzie and Hoven soils are so closely associated in 
Wibaux County that it is difficult to separate them on a 
map of the scale used. They are therefore mapped to- 
gether as a single unit. A very small part is cultivated; 
most areas are in native grass. 

The soils of this complex occupy small basinlike areas 
in the uplands. Surface drainage is to the center of the 
basins, and the soils are poorly drained. Drainage outlets 
for the basins are not well established, and the areas are 
ponded a part of each year. 

The McKenzie soils occupy the lower, most poorly 
drained parts of the basins. Their surface layers are heavy 
silty clay. Subsoil layers are dense, blockv, and grayish- 
mot tied clays that show evidence of poor internal drainage. 

Profile of McKenzie silty clav; location 924 feet N., 
264 feet W. of SE. corner, sec. 14" T. 13 X., R. 60 E.: 

A, to 14 inches 

Very dark grav heavv silty clav: alkaline. 
H K 14 to 28 inches 

Dark-gray dense clay; brown mottles occur at a depth 

of 20 inches. 
C K 28 inches + 

Gray clay; massive; soil cracks to depths of 2 or -i feet 

when dry. 

The Hoven soils occupy Hat benchlike rims or borders 
<>f the larger basins and the entire area of some of the 
basins where the soils are ponded for relatively short 
periods. They have thin, leached, light-colored surface 
layers. Their strong columnar-prismatic subsoils dis- 
tinguish them from the darker, more massive or coarse 
blockv subsoils of the McKenzie series. 



Profile of Hoven silt loam: 

A J, to 1 inch 

Grayish-brown (10YB •"» 2, dry) to very dark brown 
(10YR 2/2, moist) silt loam: soft when dry, very 
friable when moist; moderate fine granular structure; 
lower boundary clear. 

A r > 1 to 4 inches 

Light-gray (10YR 7/1, dry) to dark-gray (10YR 4 l, 
moist) sill loam: soft when dry, very friable when 
moist; moderate fine platy structure; lower boundary 
abrupt. 

B.. 4 to 10 inches 

Very dark gray (10 YR 3/1, moist) silty clay; ex- 
tremely hard when dry, very firm when moist ; strong 
fine and medium columns with distinctly rounded 
tops; lower boundary gradual. 

B su 10 to 20 inches 

Color and texture as in horizons above; moderately 
calcareous and with moderate amounts of salt visible: 
very firm when moist: weak medium angular blocky 
structure; lower boundary gradual. 

C 20 to 42 inches 

Very dark gray (10YR 3/1, moist) moderately 
calcareous silty clay; very firm when moist. 

Soluble salts occur at some depth in both of these soils. 
Local spots may have white salt crusts on the surface 
when the soils are dry. The Hoven soil is further charac- 
terized by small blowout spots, where the gray surface 
soil has been removed by wind and the da}" subsoil is 
exposed. 

The native vegetation on this complex is wheatgrass, 
saltgrass, and sedges. Some rushes grow in a few of the 
wettest places, and salt-tolerant annuals grow in spots 
where the soils are strongly alkaline. 

McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, to 1 percent slopes 
(Ma). — The few areas of this complex are in the south- 
eastern and southwestern parts. Permeability of the 
subsoil horizons to air and water is slow to very slow. 
Workability is poor because of heavy texture, dense 
claypan, and poor surface drainage in both soils. This 
complex is not suited to cultivation. 

Capability unit, VTs-1; range site, Saline lowland. 



Miduay- Moreau complex 

Midway and Moreau soils are so closely intermingled 
that it is not possible to separate them on a map of the 
scale used, therefore they are mapped together as a soil 
complex. This complex occupies moderately extensive 
areas hi the southern part of the county. It is on slopes 
and hilltops, usually associated with Regent soils but to 
some extent with Morton and Chama soils. Slope and 
position on the landscape are similar to those of the Bain- 
ville soils (fig. 4). The soils of this complex differ from the 
Bainville soils chiefly in having heavier texture. 

Midway and Moreau soils developed from clayey shales. 
Where they are so closely associated as in this complex, 
their surface soils are about the same color. The surface 
soil of the Midway is thinner, however, and grades rather 
abruptly into the gray clayey parent material and into 
the weathered shale at (i to 14 inches below the surface. 

Surface soil textures vary from silty clay loam to silty 
clay in both of these soils. The subsoils range from silty 
clay to heavy silty clay loam. Grass vegetation ranges 
from sparse on the thinnest areas of Midway soil- to 
moderatelv dense on the Moreau soils. 



2s 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



The content of organic matter in the surface layers of 
this soil complex ranges from medium to low. The dark 
surface- layers are mostly thin. Permeability of subsoil 
layers to air and water is mostly slow. Workability is fair 
to poor. Poor workability is caused partly by lower con- 
tent of organic matter and by the clayey texture of the 
plow layer. Soils of this complex are likely to be severely 
eroded under cultivation. 

Profile of Midway siltv clay; location. 1,320 feet W. 
and 200 feet X. of SE. corner of sec. 16, T. 13 X., R. 60 E.: 

A,, to 3 i no lies 

Grayish-brown (2.5V 5 2. moist) heavy silty clay loam 
or siltv clay with strong fine crumb structure: very 
hard when dry, very firm when moist, very plastic 
and stickv when wet. 

Ci .3 to 10 inches' 

Olive-gray (5Y 4 2, moist) clay with weak subangular 
blocky structure; very hard when dry, very firm 
when moist, very plastic and stickv when wet. 

(', 10 to 16 inches 

Olive-gray (5Y 4 2, moist) clay with shalelike frag- 
mental structure: very hard when dry, very firm when 
moist, very plastic and sticky when wet: no efferves- 
cence 

C 3 16 to 24 inches 

Olive-gray (5Y 4 2. moist) clay and partly weathered 
shale; very hard when dry, very firm when moist, very 
plastic and sticky when wet; effervesces strongly; 
has segregated lime spots. 

D 24 to 30 inches 

Dark-gray (5Y 4 1, moist) clay shale; effervesces 
slightly. 

Tiie Moreau soils are 16 to 30 inches deep over shale 
and have moderately developed prismatic and blocky 
subsoils. 

Profile of Moreau siltv clav loam; location, sec. 12. T. 
12 X.. R. 59 E.: 

An to 1 inch 

Grayish-brown (2.5V 5/3, moist) silty clay loam; 
moderate thin platy and fine crumb structure: firm 
when moist, plastic when wet. 

\ L to 5 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10VR 4 2, moist) silty clay loam 
or light silty clay: weak coarse platy structure break- 
ing to moderate medium crumb; slightly firm to 
friable when moist, plastic when wet. 

H_. .") to 10 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YE 4 2, moist) silty clay with 
moderate medium and coarse blocky structure: firm 
when moist, very plastic when wet; effervesces weakly 
in the lower part. 

C co L0to30inches 

Olive-brown (2.5Y I 3, moist) silty clay with numerous 
coarse white lime and gypsum mottles: weak sub- 
angular blocky breakage; effervesces violently. 

I) :■!(> to 36 inches 

Partly weathered, bedded, olive-colored calcareous 
clayey shale. 

.Midway-Moreau complex, 3 to 7 percent slopes (Mb).— 
The Midway and Moreau soils in litis complex have 
profiles its previously described. Many areas are in grass; 
a lew are tilled, particularly those associated with Regent 
ni- other soils thai are better suiied to cultivation. Soils 
of I his complex are moderately heavy to heavy textured 

This soil complex is poor to fair for crops. It is suited 
to onl\ limited cultivation because of ils relatively shallow 
depth io shale and the hazard of erosion on the stronger 
slopes. In native grass, it makes good range. 

Capability unit, [Ve I ; range site, Clayey land. 

Midway-Moreau complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes 
(Mc). Profiles of the Midway and Moreau soils in this 

complex have been previously described. Most of the 



areas are in grass, although a few are cultivated. 
Soils of this complex are moderately heavy to heavy 
textured. They are not suited to cultivation, because 
of their shallow depth to shale and the hazard of sheet 
erosion. They are mostly good for range. 

Capability unit, VIe-1 ; range site, Clayey land. 

Midway-Moreau complex, 12 to 30 percent slopes 
(Md). — Soils in this complex have profiles like those 
described as t^-pical of Midway and Moreau soils. Most 
areas are in native range; very little is tilled. These soils 
are moderately heavy to heavy textured. They are not 
suited to cultivation, because of shallow depth to shale 
and steepness of slope. They generally make good range. 

Capability unit, VTe-1; range site. Clayey land. 



Midway- Regent complex 

Midway and Regent silty clay loams are so closely 
associated in some areas that it is difficult to separate 
them on a map of the scale used. They are therefore 
mapped together as a soil complex. A typical Regent 
soil is described under the Regent series, and Midway 
soils are described with the Midway-Moreau complex. 

Soils of this complex occupy moderately large areas in 
the southern part of the county. They are associated 
with Regent silty clay loam and Morton and Chama soils 
(fig. 4). Most areas are in pasture or grass, but others 
are cultivated where they are associated with better soils. 
The grass, chiefly wheatgrass, is fairly abundant on 
Regent soils but less plentiful on the Midway soils. 

Midway soils occupy the narrow ridgetops and slopes, 
where the soils are quite shallow over the parent clayey 
shale and the dark surface layers are thin. They are 
calcareous to the surface in most areas and have little 
structure development below the granular surface soil. 
The content of organic matter is medium to low in the 
surface layers. Permeability is slow, and workability 
is generally poor. 

Regent soils usually occupy the smoother, longer slopes 
and the broader ridges. They have a relatively thicker 
dark surface layer and upper subsoil layer than the 
Midway soils. Regent soils are leached of lime to a 
depth of 12 inches or more. The subsoil has a moderate 
to strong blocky structure and a lime horizon in the lower 
part. The organic-matter content is moderately high. 
and workability is fair. 

The hazard of water erosion is high on the steep slopes 
of Midway and Regent soils and moderate on those 
slopes having lower gradients. If cropped, this soil 
complex is subject to wind erosion. 

Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3 to 7 percent slopes 
(Me). — Many areas of litis complex art- in native grass 
and are used for pasture. Some are under cultivation. 
Soils of this complex are poor to fair for crops but good 
for range. Because of the erosion hazard, they are suiied 
only to limited or occasional cultivation. 

( 'apabilily unit, [Ve 1 : range site. Clayey land. 

.Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8 to il percent slopes 
(Mg). — Mosi areas of this complex are in native grass or 
.are used for pasture. Yer\ lew area- arc tilled. Soils of 
litis complex are poor to fair for crops, but because of the 
hazard of erosion, they tire suiied lo limited or occasional 
cultivation. Their hesl use is for range. 

Capability unit, IYe l; range site. Clayey hand. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MONTANA 



29 



Mid way- Regent silty clay loams, 12 to 15 percent slopes 

(Mh). — The soil profiles in this complex are on the average 
somewhat thinner over shale than the profiles described 
for typical Midway and Regent soils. Practically all 
areas are in native grass. The soils of this complex are 
not suited to cultivation but make good range sites. 
Capability unit, l\'e 1: range site, Clayey land. 



Moline series 

The soils of the Moline series are in the southern part 
of the county. Their greatest part is in native range. 
Very few areas arc cultivated. 

Moline soils developed from clayey local alluvium on 
slopes. The surface is characterized by slick spots. The 
surface layers of these heavy soils are thin and have a 
platy structure. Immediately below, the subsoil layer is 
dense clay that has a strong columnar structure. Salty 
layers usually underlie this dense clavpan. Weathered 
material from clayey shales occur generally below 3 feet. 
Slick spots are common where wind has removed the 
thin surface and exposed the dense compact claypan. 
Grass ranges from sparse or none on the slick spots to 
fairly dense on the main, or interspot, areas. 

The organic-matter content of the surface soil is low. 
Runoff is usually medium to rapid. Permeability of the 
subsoil to air and water is slow to very slow. Moline 
soils are subject to severe wind erosion if overgrazed. 
They generally are not suitable for cultivation. On the 
whole, they are fair for grazing. 

Typical profile: Moline clay loam; location, 1,056 feet 
S. of center of sec. 4, T. 12 N., R. 58 E.: 

Ai to 5 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) clay loam; 
plat\ T structure; lower boundary abrupt. 

.V. 5 to 5 ] l> inches 

Light olive-gray (2.5Y 6/2, moist) floury material, 
which caps the columns immediately below; medium 
to strongly acid: lower boundary abrupt. 

Bo 5Vi to 10 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2, moist) dense clay in well- 
developed columns 4/5 to 1 inch in diameter; strongly 
alkaline. 

B 3 10 to 16 inches 

Dark olive-gray (5Y 4/2, moist) silty clay; indistinct 
prismatic structure: effervesces in lower part. 

C 16 to 30 inches 

Calcareous, olive-gray (5Y 5/3, moist) parent material 
consisting of sediments brought down from higher 
areas of weathered shale. 

Moline clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes (Mk). — This 
soil has the profile described for the Moline series. Most 
areas are in native grass; very few are cultivated. 

Some areas may be seeded to crested wheatgrass, tall 
wheatgrass, or other dryland grasses. Under continued 
Cultivation the pan layer tends to break down, but it is a 
long and difficult process to change the soil. The tilled 
areas are small and are generally included in soils that 
are better suited to agriculture. Continued cultivation, 
Stubble-mulch tillage, and use of all available crop 
residues benefit the soil and make it more workable. 
Practices suggested for other soils, such as the Morton or 
Regent, can be applied to this soil. 

Capability unit, Yls-2; range site. Pan spots. 

Moline clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes (Mm). This 
soil has a profile like that previously described for the 



Moline series. Practically all ol it is in range. The 
small areas in crops are generally included with soils 
better suited to tillage. Continued cultivation, stubble- 
mulch tillage, and use of all available crop residues will 
help to make the soil more workable and productive. The 
practices suggested for tin' Morton and Regent soils 
can be \i^v(\ on this soil. 

Capability unit, Vis 2: range site. Pan spots. 



Morton series 

The soils of the Morton series have developed from soft 
siltstone and sandy shale. Runoff is medium on the 
slopes. These soils receive some runoff from soils that 
occupy higher slopes, such as the Chania and Bainville. 
The surface smls have moderate crumb structure. The 
upper subsoil layers have weak to moderate prismatic 
structure. Whitish streaks and spots of accumulated 
lime occur in a band in the lower part. This subsoil 
layer merges with silty shale parent material, generally 
below 3 feet. The dense grass cover has contributed 
to the development of the relatively thick and dark- 
colored upper horizons. 

Areas of Bainville, Midway, Chama, and Rhoades soils 
that were too small to be shown on a map of the scale 
used are included with the Morton soils. 

Morton soils are characterized by a relatively high 
content of organic matter. The dark surface soil is 6 to 
8 inches thick, but the dark color continues into the upper 
subsoil. Permeability of subsoil to air and water is 
moderate. The Morton soils have good workability. 
Areas that have been cropped are subject to moderate 
wind and water erosion, particularly where Bainville and 
Midway soils are included. Morton soils are fair to good 
for crops and good for range. 

Profile of Morton silt loam; location, just east of NW. 
corner of NE^NEK of sec. 30, T. 14 X., R. 59 E.: 

A„ to 8 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 2.5/2, moist) silt 
loam; moderate fine crumb structure; friable when 
moist. 

B> 8 to 11 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YII 2.5/2, moist) silt 
loam; weak to moderate prismatic structure breaking 
to moderate medium and fine block v structure; 
friable when moist. 

B 3 11 to 16 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5 Y 4 2, moist) silt loam with 
weak medium and line Mock v structure; friable when 
moist: effervesces strongly in the lower part. 

C ca 16 to 2S inches 

Light olive-brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) silt loam with 
white lime spots; weak medium and coarse blocky 
structure; friable when moist; effervesces violently. 

C 28 to 60 inches 

Light olive-brown (2.5 Y 5 1, moist) heavy silt loam 
with white lime spots; massive; friable when moist; 
effervesces violently. 

Morton silt loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes (Mn). — This soil 
is the common soil of Wibaux County on the gentle to 
moderate slopes. Its position in relation to other soils is 
shown in figure 4. It occupies large areas in the farming 
section of the county, particularly in the central, southern, 
and eastern parts. Most of the soil is under cultivation, 
although a (rw scattered areas remain in native grass. 

( 'apabilit v unit . [He— 1; range site. Silly land. 



30 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



Morton- Arnegard complex 

In some areas Morton and Arnegard silt loams are so 
closely intermingled that it is difficult to separate them on 
the map. They are therefore mapped together in these 
areas as a single unit, or soil complex. Typical Arnegard 
and Morton soils have been described previously. Nearly 
all areas of this complex are tilled, although a small part 
is used for pasture. 

The layers, or horizons, of Arnegard and Morton sods 
are very similar. The chief difference is that the various 
layers of Arnegard silt loam are thicker than those of 
Morton silt loam. The Arnegard soil is always nearly 
level to gently sloping; the Morton soil is on somewhat 
stronger slopes. 

The surface soils are dark-colored silt loams with strong 
crumb structure. The subsoil layers have blocky to 
prismatic structure. Below 2 or 3 feet the sdty parent 
material is streaked and splotched with lime and possibly 
with some other salts. The parent material of the Morton 
sod is soft sdtstone; that of the Arnegard sod was washed 
from the slopes or consists of local alluvial sdts. The 
original dense grass vegetation has contributed to the 
development of the dark color and the fertdity of Morton 
and Arnegard soils. 

The soils in this complex are characterized by a high 
content of organic matter in the thick surface layers, 
moderate permeability of the subsods to air and water, 
and good workability. Little runoff occurs on these soils. 
There is only slight water erosion hazard, but where the 
soils are tilled the hazard from wind erosion is moderate. 

Morton-Arnegard silt loams, to 3 percent slopes 
(Mo). — This soil complex occurs mainly in a few large 
individual areas, chiefly in the eastern and southeastern 
parts of the county. It is good for crops and very good 
for range and pasture. Areas of Bainville, Midway, 
Chama, and Rhoades soils, too small to show on the map 
of the scale used, are included. 

Capability unit, IIe-1 ; range site, Overflow land. 



Morton- Chama complex 

In some areas in the county the Morton and Chama 
silt loams are so closely intermingled that it is difficult to 
separate them on a map of the scale used. In these areas 
they are mapped together as a soil complex. Typical soil 
profiles of Morton and Chama silt loams have been pre- 
viously described. These soils occupy gentle to moderate 
slopes. Morton soil is usually on the lower more gentle 
-lopes, whereas Chama soil occurs on the low ridges or 
steeper slopes (fig. 4). Nearly all of these soils are tilled. 

Both soils of this complex have developed from silty 
shales under moderately dense to dense grass. The chief 
differences are that Morton soils have thicker surface 
soils and more blocky, darker, and better developed upper 
subsoil layers than the Chama soils. The Chama -oil- 
usually occur on steeper slopes than Morton soils. The 
parent shale lies at greater depths in the Morton soils 
I han in I he ( 'liaina. 

The content of organic matter is moderately high in 
Morton soils and medium in the Chama soils. Perme- 
ability of the subsoil to ail- and water is moderate in both 
soils. Both have good workability. 



Morton-Chama silt loams, 4 to 9 percent slopes (Mp). — 

This soil complex occupies fairly large areas in the south- 
ern, central, and eastern parts of the county. It includes 
a few small areas of Bainville, or of similar shallow sods, 
that are usually lower in productivity. Other inclusions 
are small clay spots, small severely eroded areas, and 
slope breaks that are steeper than the rest of the complex. 

Soils in this complex are subject to wind and water 
erosion if they are cultivated. Morton-Chama silt loams 
are fair to good for crops. The few areas in native grass 
make good range sites. 

Capability unit, IIIe-1 : range site, Silty land. 



Pierre-Lismas complex 

Pierre and Lismas clays occur extensively in the south- 
western part of the county on rolling to rough, stream- 
dissected areas. They are mapped together as a sod 
complex. The slopes are mostly steep. 

Pierre and Lismas sods are developing on heavy clay 
shale. The Pierre sod is more deeply developed than the 
Lismas. The surface layer of the Pierre soil consists of 
about 10 inches of grayish-brown heavy clay. The 
subsod layer is indistinct and merges with partly weathered 
olive-gray shale within depths of VA to 2 feet. The vege- 
tation on Pierre sod consists chiefly of a rather sparse 
to fairly dense cover of western wheatgrass. blue grama, 
and other grasses, and a few Rocky Mountain cedars. 
In the Lismas sod, the parent shale is within a foot of the 
surface. In many places it occurs at or near the surface. 

A typical Lismas clay has been previously described. 
A description of Pierre clay follows. 

Profile of Pierre clay; location, large uniform areas in 
southwestern part of the county: 

Ai to 6 inches 

Grayish-brown heavy clay with weak blocky and 
moderate medium granular structure below a surface 
layer that is merely a 1-inch platy crust. 

Bj 6 to 15 inches 

Olive-gray heavy clay; coarse irregular blocky struc- 
ture; very hard when dry; very plastic when wet. 

C 15 inches + 

Olive-gray clay and partly weathered clay shale 
passing into unaltered or slightly modified -halt 
within 2 feet. 

The soils in this complex have surface soils that are low 
in organic-matter content. Permeability of the subsoil 
layers to air and water is slow to very slow. Runoff is 
rapid to very rapid. 

Pierre-Lismas clays, 15 to 40 percent slopes (Pa). — The 
soils are susceptible to severe sheet erosion if they are 
overgrazed. They are not suited to cultivation and are 
mostly poor for grazing. 

Capability unit, VIIs-2; range site, Shale and clay. 



Regent series 

Regent soils are extensive, particularly in the southern 

part of the county. They occupy gentle and moderate 
slopes on the uplands in association with Moreau, Midway. 
Morton, and Chama soils (fig. 4). A large pari of Regent 
-oil- is under cultivation, and significantly large areas are 
in native glass or pasture. 



WIBAUX COUNTY. MOXTAXA 



31 



These soils have developed from clayey to silty shales. 
The surface layer has strong crumb structure. The upper 
subsoil has moderate prismatic structure. The lower 
subsoil usually contains white streaks and spots where 
lime and other salts have accumulated. This layer 
merges with the parent soil material — partly weathered 
clayey shales that are usually 2 to 3 feet below the surface. 
Grass was once dense on these soils. 

Kegent soils have a high content of organic matter. 
The surface layer is about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is 
moderately permeable to air and water. Workability is 
fair. Runoff is medium to low. These soils are subject 
to water erosion on the steeper slopes. Wind erosion is a 
hazard on areas left bare for a long time. 

Included with the Regent series are small sod areas 
having inferior productivity, such as severely eroded spots, 
short and much steeper slopes, and, in places, small areas 
of Midway, Moreau, Bainville, and Chama soils. 

Typical profile: Regent siltv clay loam; location, 
\KV\EM sec. 16, T. 12 N., R. 59 E.: 

Aip to 4 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10 YR 3 2, moist) silty 
clay loam; strong fine crumb structure; friable when 
moist, slightly sticky and plastic when wet; lower 
boundary clear. 

B21 4 to 11 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silty 
clay; moderate fine prismatic structure breaking to 
moderate fine blocky structure; friable when moist, 
sticky and plastic when wet; lower boundary clear. 

B22 11 to 15 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) silty clay 
loam; moderate medium prismatic structure breaking 
to moderate blocky structure; firm when moist, 
sticky and plastic when wet; lower boundary abrupt. 

C ca 15 to 24 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2, moist) silty clay loam; 
massive; friable when moist; effervesces violently. 

C 24 to 36 inches 

Thinly bedded weathered silty and clayey shale; 
colors range from grays to yellowish browns; effer- 
vesces violently. 

Regent silty clay loam, 2 to 4 percent slopes (Ra). — This 
sod has the profile described for the Regent series. It is 
not extensive. Afost areas are in crops but a few remain 
in grass. This sod is good for crops and very good for 
range. 

Capabflity unit, lie— 1; range site, Overflow land. 

Regent silty clay loam, 5 to 7 percent slopes (Rb).— 
This soil has a profile like that described for the Regent 
series. Moderately large areas are under cultivation, 
although some remain in grass. This soil is fair to good 
for crops and makes good range sites. 

Capability unit, IIIe-1 ; range site, Clayey land. 

Regent silty clay loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes (Re).— 
This soil has the typical profile previously described for 
the Regent series. Some areas are tilled, but most of the 
soil remains in grass. This soil is suited to limited or oc- 
casional cultivation because of hazard of erosion on the 
steep slopes. It is fair to poor for crops but makes good 
range. 

Capability unit, IVe-1 ; range site, Clayey land. 



Rhoades series 

Rhoadcs soils occupy a fairly large total area in the 
southwestern part of the comity. The soil occurs on undu- 
lating land that has many slick spots and small surface 

445118—58 3 



depressions. The slick spots indicate the presence of 
claypan subsoils near the surface. 

Rhoades soils have developed from sandy and clayey 
shales. The thin surface layers have a platy structure. 
The upper subsoil, a claypan, has strong columnar struc- 
ture. Clayey shales are 2 to 3 feet below the surface. The 
grass cover ranges from none or sparse around the slick 
spots to dense on the interspot areas. 

The organic-matter content of the Rhoades soils is low. 
Surface soils are thin, varying from 1 to 4 inches over the 
claypan layer. Runoff is moderate to rapid. Erosion is 
moderately severe. Permeability to air and water of sub- 
soil layers is slow to very slow. The slick spots are com- 
mon where wind has removed the thin surface layers and 
exposed the dense, compact claypan. 

Typical profile: Rhoades elav loam; location, bill) feet 
X., 264 feet W. of SE. corner, sec. 7. T. 12 X., R. (it) K.: 

Ai to 4 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4 2, moist) platy loam and 
clay loam; lower boundary abrupt. 

A.2 4 to 5 inches 

Light brownish-gray (2.5Y 6/2, moist) floury silt 
loam: slightly to medium acid; lower boundary abrupt. 

Bo 5 to 9 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) dense 
clay; well developed columns 1 inch or more in di- 
ameter; strongly alkaline; lower boundary clear. 

B 3 9 to 14 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2, moist) silty clay; weak 
prismatic structure; effervesces in lower part. 

C 14 inches + 

Highly calcareous, dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 4/2, 
moist) platy weathered shale or bedded clay and 
shaly sandstone parent material. 

Rhoades clay loam, 4 to 7 percent slopes (Rd). — This 
soil has the profile described as typical for the Rhoades 
series. It is not usuady suitable for cultivation, but it is 
fair for range sites. Nearly all of it is used for range. 

Capability unit, VIs-2 ; range site, Pan spots. 



Rhoades- Moline complex 

The Rhoades-Moline complex occupies moderaterj 
large areas in the southwest era part of the county. Where 
these soils are so closely intermingled that it is not possible 
to separate them on a map of the scale used, they are 
mapped as a complex. Rhoades and Moline soils are 
described elsewhere in this report. 

The Moline soils developed from clayey local alluvium 
on slopes. The Rhoades sods developed from sandy and 
clayey shales and resemble Moline soils in many char- 
acteristics. The Moline soils occur on the colluvial- 
alluvial slopes, and the Rhoades soils are on the hills. 

The organic content of the surface soil of this complex 
is low. Permeability of subsoils to air and water is slow 
to very slow. Runoff is usualh moderate to rapid. These 
soils are subject to severe wind erosion when overgrazed. 
They are not suitable for cultivation. On the whole, 
they are fair for grazing. 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 8 to 11 percent slopes (Re). — 
This soil complex has the profiles previously described 
for typical Rhoades and Moline soils. Practically all of 
it is in range and pasture. 

Capability unit, VIs-2; range site, Pan spots. 

Rhoades-Moline complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes 
(Rg). — The characteristics of the two soils in this complex 



32 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 194 3, XO. 1 



have been previously described. .111 areas are in range 
and pasture. 

Capability unit, VIs-2; range site, Pan spots. 



Rockland- Bainville complex 

This mapping unit consists of strongly rolling and steep 
areas of Bainville soil interspersed with rough stream- 
dissected areas where rock outcrop is prevalent. Rock- 
land consists of exposures of silty shale and sandstone 
having little or no soil development. The Bainville soil 
has been described elsewhere in this report. Some small 
areas of Badlands are mapped with this complex. 

Rockland-Bainville complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes 
(Rh). — This complex covers large areas in the county. 
It is poor to fair for grazing. Grazing, however, is limited 
by the steep slopes and severe erosion hazard. Because 
of its rough terrain, this complex is not readily accessible 
to livestock. 

Capability- unit, VIIs-1 ; range site, Very shallow land. 

Rockland-Flasher complex 

In this mapping unit are strongly rolling and steep 
areas of Flasher soil interspersed with rough stream- 
dissected areas where rock outcrop is prevalent. Some 
areas of Bainville soil and Badlands are included. The 
Rockland consists of exposures of sandstone and silty 
shale having little or no soil development. The Flasher 
soil has been described previously. 

Rockland-Flasher complex, 15 to 50 percent slopes 
(Rk). — This complex covers large areas, chiefly in the 
northern part and, to some extent, in the western part of 
the county. Its use for grazing is severely limited by 
steep topography and severe erosion. Livestock have 
limited access to it because of the steep slopes and rough 
terrain. 

Capability unit, VIIs-1; range site, Very shallow land. 



Savage series 

Savage silty clay loam occurs in the southern part of 
the county, chiefly along Beaver Creek and the larger 
streams. It is one of the major soils in the county for 
crops. 

Savage soils have developed from mixed silty-clayey 
alluvium on stream terraces. They are nearly level and 
runoff is slow. The soil profile is well developed. The 
surface lawyer has moderate granular structure. The 
subsoil layer has weak to moderate prismatic structure. 
A layer streaked and splotched with white indicates 
where lime and oilier suits have accumulated in (he lower 
subsoil. This layer merges with silty clay loam stratified 
alluvium of the parent material. Grass growth has been 
abundant. 

The surface soil, about inches (hick, has a high content 
of organic matter. Workability is fair because of its 
good granular structure. Savage soils work best under 
favorable moisture conditions. They are moderately 
permeable to air and water. They are subject to wind 
erosion if they are bare during high winds. 



Tvpical profile: Savage siltv clav loam: location, XE. 
corner, sec. 1, T. 12 N. 3 R. 59*E.: 

Ai to 6 inches 

Very dark gray (10YR 3/1, moist) silty clay loam: 
weak medium platy structure breaking to moderate 
medium and fine granular; friable when moist; 
lower boundarv clear. 

B 2) 6 to 12 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) silty 
clay loam; weak fine prismatic structure breaking 
to strong fine subangular blocky; slightly plastic 
when wet, firm when moist, slightly hard when 
dry; lower boundary clear. 

B; 2 12 to 17 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) silty 
clay loam; weak fine prismatic structure breaking 
to strong medium and fine blocky: firm when moist, 
hard when dry, plastic when wet; lower boundary 
clear. 

B 3 17 to 21 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) silty clay 
loam; weak fine prismatic structure breaking to 
strong medium and fine block}': friable when moist, 
hard when dry, slightly plastic when wet; effervesces 
strongly; lower boundarv clear. 

C ca 21 to 27 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) silt}' clay loam with 
abundant, distinct, fine white lime and salt mottles: 
moderate medium prismatic structure breaking to 
moderate coarse blocky; friable when moist, slightly 
plastic when wet; effervesces violently; lower 
boundary clear. 

C 27 to 50 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) silty clay loam; 
massive: friable when moist, slightly plastic when 
wet; effervesces violently. 

Savage silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes (Sa). — 
This soil has the profile described for the Savage series. 
Most of it is cultivated, although some areas are used 
for pasture and range. This is a good soil for crops and 
a very good soil for range. 

Capability unit, IIe-1; range site, Overflow land. 



Savage-Wade complex 

Savage and Wade soils are so closely intermingled that 
it is difficult to separate them on a map of the scale used. 
They are therefore mapped together as a complex. This 
soil complex occurs in somewhat limited areas in the 
southern part of the county, chiefly along Beaver Creek 
and the larger streams. It is nearly level. Many of the 
areas are in range or pasture, but a significant acreage is 
tilled. The Savage and Wade series are described else- 
where in this report. 

The Savage soils comprise 60 to 70 percent of the soils 
of this mapping unit. They have developed on silty- 
clayey alluvium of the low terraces. The well-developed 
soil profile shows granular surface layers and prismatic 
subsoil horizons. Whitish streaked and splotched lower 
subsoils show where lime and other salts have accumu- 
lated. 

Wade soils have developed from clayey alluvium under 
slow surface drainage and conditions favoring accumula- 
tion of alkali salts. The surface soil is thin and has a 
thin platy structure. Immediately below the thin surface 
soil, the subsurface layer has strong columnar or strong 
prismatic structure. Salty horizons usually underlie this 
dense columnar claypan, 

Areas of Wade soils have slick spots. These slick spots 
are common where wind has removed the surface layers 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



33 



and exposed the dense, compact claypan. Wade soils, in 
places, include puff spots, where the surface material is 
loose, very friable, and strongly saline. These spots lack 
the columnar claypan structure of the typical Wade soil 
profile. 

In many places the subsoil of the Wade soils is slowby 
to very slowly permeable to water. Workability is poor 
because the exposed areas of claypan tend to puddle 
when wet and to become very hard when dry. The wind 
erosion hazard is moderate to very high. 

Savage soils have high organic-matter content and 
good surface soil depth. Workability is fair. The soils 
are subject to wind erosion. 

Savage- Wade complex, to 3 percent slopes (Sb).— 
This complex is good to fair for crops because it contains 
a fairly large area of the friable Savage soils. It is good 
for range. 

( 'apability unit, IIe-1 ; range site, Overflow land. 



B 3oa 10 to 20 inches 

Yellowish-red (5YE 4/6, moist) loam: weak coarse 
prismatic structure breaking to weak fine blocky and 
moderate medium crumb; friable when moist, 
slightly hard when dry; effervesces violently; lower 
boundary gradual. 
C cn 20 to 40 inches 

Dark-red (2.5YR 3 6, moist) loam ; line crumb struc- 
ture; very friable when moist,, soft when dry; effer- 
vesces strongly; contains gypsum crystals; lower 
boundary gradual. 

C 40 to 60 inches 

Reddish-brown (5YR 5/4, moist) loam or very fine 
sandy loam; friable when moist ; effervesces Mrongly. 

Searing loam, 3 to 7 percent slopes (Sc). — This soil has 
the profile just described. It is fair to good for crops and 
good for range. A few areas are on steep slopes that are 
not well suited to cultivation. They are mostly poor to 
fair for crops. 

Capability unit, IIIe-1 ; range site, Silty land. 



Searing series 

Soils of the Searing series occur on gentle and moderate 
slopes on uplands in or near scoria hills. They have a 
characteristic reddish color that distinguishes them from 
other soils of the county. Many of the areas are in crops, 
but a significant acreage remains in native grasses. 

Searing soils have developed from materials weathered 
in place and from some alluvium wash from burned reddish 
shale and siltstone or scoria beds. The soils are deep to 
moderately deep over the parent shales. 

Surface layers have moderate crumb structure. Sub- 
soil layers usually have moderate prismatic structure. A 
whitish or splotched layer, where lime and other salts 
accumulate, is in the lower subsoil. More or less baked 
silty shales and scoria fragments characterize the parent 
soil material and are scattered throughout the profile. 
The grass cover is dense. 

Searing soils have a fairly high content of organic 
matter. The surface layer is about 6 inches thick. 
Runoff is medium and in some places rapid. Permea- 
bility of subsoil layers to air and water is moderate. 
Workability is good. Where the steeper slopes are 
farmed, Searing soils are subject to water erosion. Wind 
erosion is moderate if the soils are left bare. 

Mapped with the Searing soils are small areas of soils 
of inferior productivity. These inclusions are small 
severely eroded areas, areas on short and much steeper 
slopes, and small areas of Bainville, Wibaux, and Flasher 
soils. 

Typical profile : Searing loam: 

An to 2 inches 

Dark-brown (7. SYR 3/2, moist) loam; weak fine 
platy structure breaking to strong fine crumb; soft 
when dry, friable when moist; a few fragments of the 
red and brown burned shale are scattered over the 
surface and throughout the soil; lower boundary 
clear. 

A I2 2 to 5 inches 

Dark-brown (7.5YR 3/2, moist) loam with weak 
medium prismatic structure breaking to strong fine 
crumb; slightly hard when dry, friable when moist; 
lower boundary clear. 

B2 5 to 10 inches 

Dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/4, moist) heavy loam; 
moderate medium prismatic structure breaking to 
moderate fine blocky; slightly hard when dry, friable 
when moist; lower boundar} 7 clear. 



Valentine series 

Valentine soils occur in a few small to relatively large 
areas in the southwestern part of the county. They occupy 
areas on sandhdls and are all under native grass. 

These sods have developed in windblown sand. They 
have little or no runoff and no well-defined drainage chan- 
nels. The surface layer consists of thin, slightly dark- 
colored fine sand. This la}-er merges with the sand parent 
material, which in most places is very deep over sandstone 
and shale. The growth of grass is dense in some areas. 

The content of organic matter in the surface sod is low. 
Permeability to air and water is rapid. Valentine sods 
are subject to ver}- severe wind erosion if the grass cover 
is destroyed. Valentine soils are good for grazing. They 
are not suitable for cultivation, because of wind erosion. 

Typical profile: Valentine fine sand: 

Ai to 3 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10 YR 3.5/2, moist) fine sand; 

loose; lower boundary clear. 
C 3 to 28 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4/2, moist) fine sand; 

wind stratified; loose; lower boundary clear. 
A b 28 to 34 inches 

Very dark brown (10YR 2/2, moist) fine sandy loam, 

single grained; very friable when moist. 

Valentine fine sand, 5 to 15 percent slopes (Va). — This 
soil has the profile described for the Valentine series. It 
is a good sod for grazing. It is not suitable for cultivation, 
because of wind erosion. 

Capability unit, VIe-2; range site, Sands. 



Vebar series 

Sods of the Vebar series are widely distributed over the 
county; the larger areas are generally southwest of 
Wibaux. Most areas are undulating and rolling; a few 
are moderately steep. These sandy soils (fig. 17) are 
used mainly for crops, but some areas are in pasture and 
range. 

Vebar soils have developed in materials weathered from 
sandstone and sandy shale, and locally they have been 
partly reworked by wind. The surface soil has weak 
crumb structure and is about 6 to 8 inches thick. The 
subsoil has weak block}- structure and generally merges 



34 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 




Figure 17. — Profile of Vebar fine sandy loam. 

with the underlying sandy material or sandstone. The 
virgin soils support a dense rover, chief!}' of tall grasses. 

The organic-matter contenl of the surface layers in 
Vebar soils is medium. Runoff is slow, and the soil 
absorbs most of the rainfall. Permeability to air and 
water is moderately rapid in the subsoil. Workability is 
good. \\ ben tilled, this soil is subject to moderate to 
<<'Yci^ wind erosion. 

Included With the Vebar soils are small areas of lower 
productivity. These are shallow Flasher soils, rock out- 
crop, severely eroded spots, and short slopes that are 
much ste sper than is normal for the series. 

Typical profile: Vebar fine sandy loam: 

A,., to 8 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YB 3/2, moist) light fine 
sandy loam: weak medium and fine crumb structure; 
very friable when moist; effervesces slightly; lower 
boundary abrupt. 

H 8 to 10 inchc- 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 3.5/2, moist) light fine 
sandy loam: weak very coarse blocky structure; very 
friable when moist; effervesces strongly; lower 
boundary abrupt. 

Ci 10 to 25 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5 3, moist) loamy fine sand with 
weak very coarse blocky structure; very friable when 
moist; effervesces strongly; lower boundary diffuse. 

C 2 2~) ti> 36 inches 

Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/3, moist) loamy fine sand; 
loose or very friable when moist : effervesces strongly. 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 1 to 7 percent slopes (Vb). — 
'I In- soil bas the profile described for the Vebar scries. 



Most of the areas are under cultivation, but some remain 
in native grass. This soil is fair to good for crops and 
good for range. The wind erosion hazard is very high. 

Capability unit, IIIe-3; range site, Sand}- land. 

Vebar fine sandy loam, 8 to 14 percent slopes (Vc).— 
This soil occurs on a few of the more steeply sloping areas. 
Most of this sandy soil is in grass, although some areas 
are cultivated. This soil is suitable for only limited or 
occasional cultivation because of severe wind erosion. 
It is good for range. 

Capability unit, IVe-1 ; range site, Sandy land. 



Vebar-Flasher complex 

"Where Vebar and Flasher soils are so closely inter- 
mingled that it is difficult to show them separately on a 
map of the scale used, they are mapped together as a 
soil complex. These sandy soils are mostly under 
cultivation, but some areas are in native grass. Typical 
Vebar and Flasher soils are described in detail elsewhere 
in this report. 

Flasher soils are on the steeper slopes and on low hilltops 
where the sandstone is near the surface or may outcrop 
in places. Both Vebar and Flasher soils are particularly 
subject to severe wind erosion if tilled. 

Vebar-Flasher complex, 3 to 9 percent slopes (Vd). — 
This soil complex occurs in limited areas in association 
with Vebar soils. It is fair for crops and good for range. 
Permeability to air and water is moderately rapid. 

Capability unit, IIIe-3; range site, Sanely land. 



Vebar -Timmer complex 

Vebar and Timmer soils (fig. 4) are so closely mixed 
in some areas that it is difficult to separate them on a 
map of the scale used. In these areas they are mapped 
together as a soil complex. Most of the areas are in 
crops, but some are in native grass. Virgin areas support 
a dense stand of tall grasses. 

Timmer soils have developed from material that has 
been mixed as it moved downslope from areas of sandy 
shales and sandstone. They are on the lower slope 
position favorable for the accumulation of runoff from 
higher soil areas. There is practically no runoff. The 
surface layer has weak crumb structure. Subsoil layers 
have weak prismatic structure. A whitish or splotched 
layer usually occurs in the lower subsoil: it shows where 
lime has accumulated. This layer merges with the loose 
sandy parent material or, in places, with soft sandstone. 

Vebar soils resemble Timmer soils in many respects. 
They have developed from similar parent materials, but 
probably more directly from soft sandstone. Vebar 
soils occur on undulating to nearly level uplands and low 
rounded knolls. The surface layer has weak crumb struc- 
ture. Subsoil layers have blocky structure. The whitish 
zone of lime accumulation usually occurs in the deep 
subsoil layers. The grass is moderately dense on the 
virgin areas. 

The organic-matter content of Vebar and Timmer 
soils is mostly high. The surface layer ranges from 6 
to 10 inches in thickness. Permeability of subsoil layers 
to air and water is moderately rapid. Workability is 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONT \\ \ 



:;:, 



good. These soils are subject to moderately severe 1 
wind erosion under cultivation. 

Included with the Yebar soils arc small areas of Bain- 
ville and Flasher soils, soils on short steep slopes, and 
severely eroded spots. 

Yebar soils have been previously described. A Thinner 
soil is as follows. 

Typical profile: Thinner line sandy loam; location, 
XW'iXWf sec. 36, T. 14 X.. R. 60 E. (in swales): 

Ajp to 8 inches 

Very dark brown (10VK 2/2, moist) fine sandy loam; 

weak medium and fine crumb structure: very friable 

when moist: lower boundary abrupt. 
B 2 8 to 17 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3 2, moisl I fine sandy 

loam: moderate coarse prismatic structure; very 

friable when moist. 
B 3 17 to 22 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) fine sandy 

loam: weak very coarse blocky structure; very friable 

when moist. 
C cn 22 to 36 inches 

Dark grayish-brown (10YR 4 2, moist) loamy fine 

sand; effervesces strongly. 

Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, to 3 percent slopes 

(Ve). — This soil complex is of limited extent in the county. 
It occupies a few nearly level areas in the southeastern 
part, it is fair to good for crops and good for range. 
Capability unit, IIIe-3; range site, Overflow land. 



Wade series 

Soils of the Wade series are in the southern part of the 
county, mostly along Beaver Creek and its tributaries. 
Some areas are cultivated, although many remain in 
pasture or range. 

These soils have developed on clayey alluvium under 
slow surface drainage and conditions favoring accumula- 
tion of alkali salts. The surface soils are 4 to 6 inches 
thick and have thin platy structure. Immediately below 
is the strong columnar claypan subsoil. Salty, moderately 
clayey horizons usually underlie this dense claypan. 

Areas of Wade soils are characterized by occasional to 
frequent blowouts or slick spots where wind has removed 
the surface soil and exposed the claypan. In some places 
Wade soils show salty puff spots where salt has accumu- 
lated at the surface. 

Permeability of the claypan to air and water is slow to 
very slow. Workability of the soils is poor because of the 
exposed heavy, dense claypan spots which become puddled 
when wet and very hard when dry. Wind erosion i.« 
moderate to severe. 

Typical profile: Wade silty clay loam: 

A 1 to (> inches 

Dark grayish-brown (2.5Y 3/2, moist) friable silty 

clay loam; lower boundary abrupt. 
B 6 to 12 inches 

Very dark olive-gray (5Y 3/1, moist) clay; dense, 

massive; prismatic or columnar; strongly alkaline. 
Ci 12 to 26 inches 

Dark olive-gray (5Y 4/2, moist) silty clay loam having 

white spots of salt accumulation; more friable than 

horizon above; effervesces stronglv. 
C 2 26 to 40 inches 

Light brownish-gray stratified silty and clayey old 

alluvium. 



Wade silty clay loam, to 3 percent slopes (Wa). — 
This soil is generally poor for crops. However, it is fair 
for crops where the surface soil is thickest and only a few 
blowout spots are present. It is fairly good for range, 
chiefly because of the dense vegetation on the areas 
between blowout spots. 

Capability unit, IYs -1 ; range site. Saline lowland. 



Wibaux series 

This soil occurs throughout the county but is chiefly in 
the central and southern parts. The topography is 
strongly rolling to rough. Much of this soil occupies 
COne-shaped hills, knobs, and ridges that have consider- 
able scoria outcrop (fig. 4). Nearly all areas are in grass, 
but a few that are associated with better agricultural soils 
are cultivated. 

Wibaux sods are developing over reddish shaly materials, 
or scoria, which was produced by heating and partial 
fusing of clays during the burning of former coal and 
lignite beds. The surface layer has weak crumb .structure. 
Within a foot this layer merges with scoria that has been 
altered only slightly by weathering. Scoria occurs at or 
near the surface and ranges to depths of 2 or 3 feet where 
Searing soils are included. Scoria outcrop is common. 

The content of organic matter in the thin surface layers 
is low. Runoff is medium. Permeability of subsoil 
layers to air and water is moderate, but because of shallow 
depth to bedrock, Wibaux soils are more or less droughty. 

Typical profile: Wibaux stony loam: 

A] to 5 inches 

Dark reddish-brown ('iVli 3 '3, moist) friable stony 
loam containing an abundance of angular scoria 
fragments; commonly calcareous. 

C 5 inches + 

The remainder of the section, below a thin light 
reddish-brown transition layer, is almost pure scoria 
that has been unaltered or only slightly altered by 
weathering; colors range from bright red to reddish 
yellow : some areas are calcareous and others non- 
calcareous. 

Wibaux stony loam, 10 to 40 percent slopes (Wb). — 
This soil has the profile described for the Wibaux series. 
It is not suited to cultivation but is fair to good for range 
sites. 

Capability unit, YIe-3; range site, Shallow land. 



Williams series 

Williams soils occupy inextensive areas in the extreme 
northern part of the county. Most of this soil is in 
native grasses, although small areas arc cultivated. The 
soils are on gentle to moderately steep slopes in association 
with Bainville soils. 

Williams soils have developed on glacial drift from a 
mixture of gravel and fine earth deposited by glaciers. 
The surface sod has moderate crumb structure. Subsoil 
layers have weak blocky to prismatic structure. The 
lower subsoil normally has a whitish or splotched layer 
in which lime has accumulated. Parent glacial drift 
occurs below the subsoil. Thickness of the drift over shale 



36 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



and sandstone ranges from 2 to several feet. Grass Zahl series 
has been fairly abundant on Williams soils. 

The organic-matter content of th^ surface layers is high. 
Runoff, depending on steepness of slope, ranges from 
medium to rapid. Permeability of subsoil to air and 
water is moderate. If cropped, Williams soils are subject 
to water erosion on the steeper slopes. Wind erosion is 
moderate on exposed slopes when the land is left bare. 

Typical profile: Williams silt loam: 



A, to 5 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3 2, moist) heavy 
loam; weak medium platy structure breaking to 
moderate medium crumb: friable when moist. 

B 2 5 to 9 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3 2.5, moist) heavy 
loam; weak medium and fine blocky structure 
breaking to moderate coarse crumb; friable when 
moist. 

B 2ca 9 to 20 inches 

Brown (10 YR 4/3, moist) heavy loam; weak medium 
and fine blocky structure breaking to moderate 
coarse crumb; friable when moist; effervesces 
violently. 

B 3 20 to 27 inches 

Brown (10 YR 4/3, moist) clay loam: weak coarse 
prismatic structure breaking to weak coarse blocky; 
friable when moist; slightly plastic when wet: 
effervesces violentlv. 

C 27 to 40 inches 

Brown (10YR 4/3, moist) clay loam till; massive; 
friable when moist, slightly plastic when wet; 
effervesces violently. 

Williams silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes (Wc). — This 

soil has the profile described for the Williams series. It is 
not extensive. Most areas are in pasture. This soil is 
fair to good for crops and makes good range. 

( lapability unit, IIIe-1 ; range site. Silt}' land. 

Williams silt loam, 6 to 14 percent slopes (Wd). — The 
profile of this soil is similar to that described for the 
Williams series. The soil is fair to poor for crops; it tends 
to erode badly tinder cultivation on the steeper slopes. 
Much of this soil occurs as small areas on the ridge crests 
in hilly and broken areas. Few areas arc large enough to 
make farming practical. 

( 'a liability unit, IVe-l ; range site, Silty land. 



The soils'of the'Zahl series are in the extreme northern 
part of the county, mainly on steep slopes. They occupy 
areas within shale uplands, most of which are in native 
grasses. Ven~ few areas are tilled. 

These thin soils developed on glacial drift — a mixture 
of gravel, stone, shale, and fine earth deposited by glaciers. 
The surface soil is thin and has weak crumb structure. 
It merges with subsoil layers of glacial drift. 

The grass cover is variable but is generally dense. The 
content of organic matter in the surface layers is low. 
Runoff on the steep topograph}' is mostly rapid. Perme- 
ability of subsoil layers to air and water is moderate. 

Typical profile: Zahl loam: 

Ai to 4 inches 

Very dark grayish-brown (10YR 3/2, moist) friable 
loam with fine crumb structure; few boulders; small 
stones and pebbles are common in the soil and on the 
surface; commonly calcareous at or near the surface. 

A 4 to 8 inches 

Olive-brown (2.5Y 4/3, moist) loam; calcareous. 

C 8 to 26 inches 

Yellowish-brown (2.5Y 5/4, moist) friable calcareous 
loam or clay loam till; contains various amounts of 
stone and pebbles, including sandstones or shale 
fragments. 

Zahl loam, 8 to 30 percent slopes (Za). — This sod has 
the profile described for the Zahl series. It is not suited to 
cultivation, because of strong slopes and the hazard of 
erosion. It is good for range sites. 

Capabilit} T unit, VIe-1; range site, Silty land. 

Formation and Classification 
of Wibaux County Soils 

This section deals with the formation and classification 
of the different sod series recognized in the county. Some 
of the factors that affect soil formation are discussed. 
The soil series, classified by higher categories, and some 
of the factors that have contributed to soil morphology, 
are shown in table 3. 



Table 3. — Classification of the soil scries of Wibaux County by higher categories, and some of the factors that have 

contributed to the morphology of the soils l 
Zonal Soils 



' (real soil group 
and soil series 


Parent material 


Topography and drainage 


Climate 


Vegetation 


Special characteristics 


Chestnul : 

Arnegard 

Chama 

( !herry - . 

( Sheyenne 


Alluvial-colluvial, silty 

Sandstone and shale. 

Alluvial fans and 
terraces, silly. 

Old alluvium, gravelly 

fine earl h. 
Alluvial terraces, silty 

Alluvial-colluvial, 
silty-clayey. 

Shale 


Narrow valleys and low 

slopes; moderately well 

drained. 
Undulating to rolling; 

well drained. 
Fans and terraces, Level 

to sloping; moderately 

well drained. 
I Undulating high ter- 
races; well drained. 
Nearly level; well 

drained. 
Narrow valley and low 

slopes; moderately 

well drained. 
1 'ndulating to rolling; 

well drained. 


Semiarid . 

Semiarid. . 
Semiarid 

Semiarid. . 
Semiarid 

Semiarid 

Semiarid 


( i rass 




< irass 

( i rass _ . . 

( Irass 




Farland . 


( !rass 




( Irail 


( irass 




Moreau 













See fool note :ii end of table. 



"WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



37 



Table 3. — Classification of the soil series of Wibaux County by higher categories, and some of the factors that have 

contributed to the morphology of the soils 1 — Continued 

Zonal Soils — Continued 



Great soil group 
and soil series 


Parent material 


Topography and drainage 


Climate 


Vegel ai ion 


Special characteristics 


Chestnut — Con. 
Morton 


Sandstone and shale. 
Shale 


Undulating to rolling; 

well drained. 
Same . 


Semiarid 

Semiarid 
Semiarid .... 

Semiarid.. 

Semiarid 

Semiarid. 

Semiarid. 

Dry, semiarid 

1 )ry, semiarid 

Dry, semiarid 


Grass _ 




Regent 
Savage ... 

Searing 

Timmer 

Vebar. . 


< ■rass.. 




Alluvial terraces, 

silty-clayey. 
Scoria, sandstone, and 

shale. 
Sandstone and wind 

deposits. 
Same 

Glacial drift 


Nearly level, well 

drained. 
Undulating to sloping; 

well drained. 
Undulating; well 

drained. 
LIndulating to rolling; 

well drained. 
Same ... 

Undulating to sloping; 
well drained. 

Level to sloping; 

moderately well 

drained. 
Sloping to rolling; 

excessively drained. 


Grass.. 




(Irass _ 




( irass 

( Irass . .. 

Grass 
( '< rass _ 


Flatter positions. 


Williams _ 




Brown : 

Cushman, deep 
variant. 

Glendive. . 


Ancient alluvium and 
wind deposits over 
shale. 

Alluvial and colluvial 
fine sandy materials. 

Clav shale.. _ 




( irass . _ 




Pierre 


Grass __ _. 










Intrazonal Soils 


Solonetz: 
Hoven 

Moline 
Rhoades. 
Wade 


Alluvium, clayey _ 

Alluvial-colluvial, silty- 
clayey. 

Shale 

Alluvial terraces, silty- 
clayey shale. 

Alluvium, silty, saline, 
from shale. 

Clayev alluvium 


Nearly level terraces; 

variable drainage. 
Narrow valley and low 

slopes; moderately 

well drained. 
Undulating to rolling; 

moderately well 

drained. 
Nearly level terraces; 

variable drainage, 

undulating to sloping. 

Fans and low terraces; 
variable drainage. 

Level flats; poorly 
drained. 


Semiarid 

Semiarid.. . . 

Dry, semiarid 

Semiarid to 
arid. 

Semiarid. . 

Semiarid . 


Grass . . 
Grass _ 

Grass . . 

Grass . 

Grass . 

Grass, sedge 


Drainage, salinity. 
Drainage, salinity. 

Saline shales. 

Drainage, salinity; 


Saline: 

Cherry, saline.. 

Humic-Gley: 

McKenzie _ . 


saline shales. 

Drainage, -aline 
shales. 

I hainage. 








Azonal Soils 


Regosols (Dry 
sands) : 
Valentine. 

Lithosols: 

Bainville.. 

Flasher . . 


Wind-deposited sands 

Sandstone and shale.. 
Sandstone- 


Dunelike; excessively 
drained. 

Undulating, rolling, 

and steep; excessive 

drainage. 

Same ... 

Steep slopes; excessive 

drainage. 
Undulating, rolling, 

and steep; excessi\e 

drainage. 
Sleep slopes; excessive 

drainage. 
Rolling and steep; well 

to excessively drained. 

Nearly level, variable 
drainage. 


Semiarid to 
arid. 

Same . 

Same 


Grass 

( '.rass 

Grass 

(!rass 

< ! rass . 


Sand and wind. 
Steep slopes. 

Sleep slopes. 


Lismas 

Midway.. . 

Wibaux 


Clay shale 

Shale 

Baked shale 

Glacial drift over shale 

Allu\ ial silts, sands. . 


Same. 

Same 


Clay shale, steepness. 
Steep slopes. 

Baked shale, 


Same . 

Same . 


Grass. _ 


Zahl 


Grass . 

( irass, brush 


steepness. 

Shcp slopes. 

Young, little 


Alluvial soils: 
Harlem. 


Same. .. 






>1< \ elopment. 



Miscellaneous land types are not listed. 



38 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 194 3, NO. 1 



Principal Factors of Soil Formation 

In the preceding sections the soils of the county have 
Im'od described and suggestions have been made for their 
use and management. In order to understand the soils 
better and to use them to the best advantage, it is impor- 
tant to know how they formed. Such information will 
help explain why soils differ in fertility, physical proper- 
ties, and productivity. 

The factors that are the main causes of soil formation 
are: (1) the parent material and its geologic origin; (2) 
topography, or lay of the land; (3) the climate under which 
the soil has formed; (4) the length of time the soils have 
weathered or developed; and (5) the plant and animal 
life in and on the soil. 

Xo one factor can explain all the soil differences. All 
of the factors act together, and at different rates, to form 
the different layers, often called horizons, that make up 
oacli soil. In some places steep slopes have strongly 
affected the formation of the soil. In other places the 
parent material has been the dominating influence. 
Climate and vegetation have broad and general effects. 
The length of time a soil has been acted on by natural 
forces is reflected in the land and number of horizons that 
have developed. 

Origin of soil-forrning materials.- — The texture of the 
soils — then* variation from sandy to clayey — is strongly 
influenced by texture of the parent soil material. Table 
3 indicates the parent soil material of each soil series. 

Most of the formations in the county are favorable for 
soil development. Many of the materials are calcareous. 
The general locations of the geological formations in the 
county are shown in figure 18. How some of the soils are 
related to geologic formations in the county is shown in 
figure 19. 

The most common materials in Wibaux County are 
those of the Fort Union formation of early Tertiary 
(Eocene) age. They include soft siltstone, sandstone, and 
clay shale; local bands of impure limestone; and numerous 
lignitic coal beds. Plant and animal fossils occur, but 
no dinosaur bones. The bottom of the formation is 
placed at the lowest succession of the lignitic beds. 

Lignitic beds varying in thickness from a few inches to 
several feet are common throughout the Fort Union 
formation. Beds of scoria, the baked and burned clinker 
remnants of lignite beds, are common. They furnish the 
parent material for Scaring and "Wibaux soils. The 
lignite beds themselves have contributed little to soil 
formation. 

Soils associated with the Tongue River member of the 
Fort Union formation are loams, silt loams, and fine 
sandy loams of the, Morton, Chama, Bainville, Flasher, 
and Vebar series. The moderately heavy soils, as Regent , 
Moreau, and Midway, are associated with Lebo shale in 
the lower part of the Fort Union and in the older Hell 
( 'reek formations. 

The I Fell Creek formation consists mainly of gray 
sandstone, greenish shaly clay, and mudstone that in 
places contain dinosaur bones and a few thin lignite and 
subbil iiininous coal beds. 

Some (if i he most productive soils have developed in 
silty and clayey eolluvium or in alluvium that washed 
from shale materials of the Fori Union and Hell Creek 
formal ion- or from soils developing in those formations. 



TI8N 




rv >(r* Khe , 
KfhV ^Vj 



R57E 



Figure 18. — Geological formation of Wibaux County, Mont.: Qd, 
Border of continental ice sheet; glacial drift. Tfu, Fort Union 
formation; includes the Tongue River member, Lebo shale member, 
and Tullock member. Khe, Hell Creek formation. Kfh, Fox 
Hills sandstone. Kp, Bearpaw shale. 

Among these productive soils are those of the Arnegard, 
Grail, Savage, Farland, Cherry, and Harlem series. 
Wade, Rhoades, Molinc, and the saline phases of the 
Cherry series, though derived from the same formation 
as these productive soils, are less desirable because of 
claypan, wet spots, or salinity. 

Some soil series, as Che.yenne, have developed in 
ancient gravelly fine earth deposits on stream terraces 
that are now far above the level of the present valley 
bottoms and streams. 

In the northern part of the county, Williams and Zahl 
soils have developed from remnants of glacial drift that 
once covered this area. Geologists classify the age of 
this deposit as pre- Wisconsin. These soils may mark 
the southern border of the continental ice sheet. 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONT \ \ \ 



39 




LTSMAS 
PIERRE 



—VALENTINE 



RHOADES 

-REGENT 

-MIDWAY 

-MOREAU 

-MOLINE 



— MOREAU 

— MIDWAY 

■REGENT 
RHOADES 

MORTON 
-CHAMA 

-VEBAR 

-TIMMER 

-FLASHER 

MORTON 
HAMA 

NVILLE or FLASHER 

RD 



Figure 19.- 



ANDS 



-Relationship of soil series to geologic formations in 
Wibaux County, Mont. 



In the southwestern part of the count}", the sandhills — 
or areas of Valentine soils — have developed from sands 
sorted and deposited b} r the wind. The sands were 
derived in part from the Fox Hills sandstone formation 
of Cretaceous age. The Fox Hills formation is typically 



a shaly sandstone grading upwardjinto massive brownish 
sandstone; a white sandstone of the Colgate member is 
locally al the top. 

Tn the southwestern part of the county the variants 
of the Cushman soils have formed in many kinds of 
parent materials. Sonic of these materials were derived 
from ancient valley alluvium, perhaps of Pliocene age, 
and from wind-deposited silts. 

Lismas and Pierre soils are associated with dense clay 
shales of the Bearpaw formation of Late Cretaceous age. 
This formation includes dark-gray and brownish clay 
shale that has a thick strata of nonfissile bentonitic shale. 
Calcareous and ferruginous concretions occur throughout, 
and there are some thick bentonite beds. 

Badlands and Rockland are associated with raw ex- 
posures of the Fort Union, Hell Creek, and Bearpaw 
formations in this county. 

Topography, slope, and drainagi caust differences In 
the soil. — Total moisture and runoff and run-in water 
have a major effect on soil development. The steeper 
soils furnish some runoff to the soils on lower areas. This 
has the same effect on the lower lying soils as additional 
rainfall. Vegetation is more plentiful on them, and the 
surface laj^ers have a greater content of humus. As a 
result, the more nearly level areas ordinarily are 
darker and more productive. Thus the normal, or zonal, 
soils having slopes of ;-> to 7 percent often show the average 
effect of local rainfall and climate. The soils that are 
forming on the steeper slopes are carried away in part by 
natural erosion. These soils therefore have less depth 
and less horizon development. 

The land surface in Wibaux Count}" was shaped for 
the most part by the natural process of erosion, and by 
water, ice, wind, and gravity. As these natural processes 
carved the hills and valleys, the valley slopes advanced 
into the uplands. How soils fit into the present land- 
scape is shown in figure 4, p. 3. 

While the main streams and side drainages are being 
formed, the valley slopes recede from them and are cul 
back. The process is described by geologists as formation 
of pediments. Pediments are the land surfaces between 
the valley slopes and the stream. The slopes of these 
pediments decrease as the}" approach the stream. 

('Innate and soil. — The climate and its influence on soil 
and plants depends not only on temperature, rainfall, 
and humidity, but also on the physical characteristics 
of the soil or soil material and on relief, which, in turn, 
influences drainage, aeration, runoff, erosion, and exposure 
to sun and wind. 

The climate in Wibaux County fluctuates through drj 
and wet years from semiarid to subhumid. Its effects 
are best shown on upland soils with gentle slopes — slopes 
of l-S to 7 percent. The sleeper and tin' more nearly level 
soils show dominance of other factors that have affected 
soil development. The area has a continental climate— 
that is, the summers arc comparatively short, hot, and 
dry, and the winters are fairly cold and long. Freezing 
weather may prevail from November through April. 
Most of the annual precipitation falls in the growing 
season, a distribution of rainfall that is typical of the 
Great Plains and that favors crop production. 

Ground moisture seldom goes below 3 feet, except in 
such places as bottom lands or areas that receive run-in 
water. Layers of accumulated lime indicate the average 



to 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, NO. 1 



depth to which rainfall penetrates in the various soils. 
Below this layer, the soils are usually dry. Moisture 
collected on fallow land, however, often goes below this 
depth. 

Time as a factor in soil development. — Soils of the county 
range from young to old. The number and characteristics 
of the soil horizons, or layers, is partly a function of time, 
which is demonstrated in the degree of weathering that 
has taken place. Some j'oung soils have developed 
thin A layers in which the parent material is relatively 
close to the surface. Generally, the greater the number 
of soil horizons, the deeper or more complex is the soil 
development. Furthermore, the greater number of soil 
horizons indicates that the soils have remained in place 
relatively undisturbed for a longer time than soils with 
fewer horizons. The more strongly the soil structure is 
expressed in the layers, the longer it took to develop the 
layers. 

Influence of native vegetation. — Native grasses growing 
over long periods have contributed largely to the develop- 
ment of the dark-colored surface layers. The favorable 
crumb or granular structure has been developed in part 
by the growth of plant roots. The abundance of root 
growth and the grass density on the surface show the 
favorable influence of soil structure and development. 
In some series, such as the Pierre and Lismas, the develop- 
ment is thin and the plant cover is sparse. The spotted 
condition of the vegetation that is associated with slick 
spots and claypans demonstrates the difficulty plants 
encounter because of adverse soil structure. Soils with 
light-colored surface layers are generally those on which 
the vegetation is sparse. The accumulation of organic 
matter is slow in these areas. 



Human Influences on Soils 

Physical changes in soils may result from cultivation, 
as when surface and subsurface layers are mixed during 
tillage. Erosion, especially that brought about by activ- 
ities of man, can change the nature of a soil by removing 
the upper layers much faster than they can be replaced 
by soil-forming processes. Crumbs and granules may 
he broken down or the structure may be made more 
dense and packed by grinding and crushing during culti- 
vation. The heating of raindrops on a bare surface can 
cause puddling and thus break down the natural structure. 

Organic matter, under cultivation, slowly decreases, 
even though there is little surface erosion. Mineral 
planl nutrients are gradually removed from the soil in 
grain, si raw, and hay. 

When the native ranges are overused, the number of 
plants is reduced and the protection they give lo the 
surface soil is reduced. Overuse can also decrease the 
amount of mulch provided by natural plant litter and 
thus cause the soil to be washed or blown away. 



How the Soil Profile Develops 

After the soil material is deposited, or as it weathers in 
place, simple forms of life such as bacteria, fungi, and 
lower plants begin to grow. Higher plants become estab- 
lished, ;ind as they grow and die they add organic matter. 



Thus a layer of surface soil is formed. At the early stages 
of profile development, the subsoil has the same charac- 
teristics as the soil-forming material. If the slopes are 
steep, the subsoil layer may change very little from the 
original parent material because on such slopes the soil 
is carried downslope nearly as fast as it forms. If the 
slopes are gentle, the subsoil may gradually change from 
the original parent material. Soil horizons then increase 
in number. They thicken, and the normal soil develops. 

The soil-forming factors make the soil profile what it is. 
They also cause all the differences in the profile. The 
upper layers can be removed rapidly if accelerated erosion 
occurs. 

The action of ice, wind, water, and gravity occurs along 
with the development of soil and vegetation. In this 
area rainfall was adequate to grow mostly the sod-forming 
grasses. Only in the wettest years was there a surplus 
that could penetrate below the grass roots. The normal 
soils that developed on the uplands have thick, very dark 
brown surface layers high in organic matter. The surface 
soil was underlain by a layer or horizons in which slowly 
soluble materials like lime accumulated. Along with the 
lime, clay particles moved slowly downward in water 
suspension and were deposited in looser horizons and 
along root channels. Soil structure was thus formed. 
The changes were very slow, and the soils were formed at 
different rates from place to place, depending on the 
parent materials, the degree of slope, and many other 
factors. 



Wibaux County Soils Related to Other Areas 

Some of the soil series described in a soil survey of 
Morton County, North Dakota, 3 are the same as or are 
related to the soils in Wibaux County. Much of the infor- 
mation on the soils in Morton County can be used for a 
better understanding of the soils in Wibaux County. How- 
ever, Morton County has the most eastern distribution of 
the soils that are common to both counties. Such soils in 
Wibaux County occur on the western edge of Morton 
County. 

The soil survey of McKenzie County, North Dakota, 4 
also discusses comparable soils having a similar climate 
and topography. McKenzie County adjoins Wibaux 
County for a short distance. The soils are mapped in 
somewhat less detail in Morton and McKenzie Counties 
than in Wibaux County. 



Classification of Soils Into Great Soil Groups 

The soil series of Wibaux County are classified by great 
soil groups in table 3. This classification shows (1) in 
what broad soil zone and great soil group the soil series 
occur in the world, and (2) the relative effects of the soil- 
forming factors, such as climate, vegetation, topography, 



3 Edwards, M. J., and Ableiter, J. K. son. survey of morton 
COUNTT, north Dakota. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Planl Indus., 
Soils, and Agr, Engin., Soil Survey Rpt., Ser. 1936, No. 28, 145 
pp., illus. 1951. 

' Edwards, M. J., and Ableiter, J. K. son, survey of mc- 
KENZIE ini vn, NORTH DAKOTA. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Plant, 
Indus., Soil Survey Rpt., Ser. L933, No. :i7. 99 pp., illus. L942. 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 41 

drainage, and parenl material. Such a classification is and lower values, acidity. The degree of acidity or 

useful to show how the local soils are related to soils all alkalinity is expressed in words and pll values as follows: 

over the world. ,, .. 

//// pii 

Extremely acid Below 4.5 Neutral.. (i. G-7. 3 

Very strongly acid-. 4.5-5.0 Mildly alkaline 7.4-7.8 

Soil Survey Methods and Definitions fe?S tSi" -' J"f n Sf^ffl t S£? ne - » Si' n 

*f Medium acid o. 6-0. Strongly alkaline 8. 5-9. 

mi .• . r i -i • i • Slightly acid G. l-r>. 5 Very strongly alkaline. 9.1 and 

I ho scientist who makes a soil survey examines soils in higher 

the field, classifies them in accordance with facts that he 

observes, and maps their boundaries on an aerial photo- Classification— On the basis of the characteristics 

graph or other map. 5 observed by the survey team or determined by laboratory 

Field study.— The soil surveyor bores or digs many lests . soils * 1I-e classified into phases, types, and series. 

holes to see what the soils are "like. The holes are not The soil type is the basic classification unit. A soil type 

spaced in a regular pattern but are located according to may consist of several phases. Types that resemble each 

the lay of the land. Usually they are not more than a otn . er in in,,sl of tll(, ir characteristics are grouped into soil 

quarter of a mile apart, but sometimes they are much series. 

closer. In most soils such a boring or hole reveals several Soil type.— Soils similar in kind, 1 hickness, and arrange- 

distinct layers, called horizons, which collectively are ment of soil layers are classified as one soil type. 
known as the soil profile. Each layer is studied to see how Soil pkast .—Because of differences other than those of 

if differs from others in the profile" and to learn the things kint b thickness, and arrangement of layers, some soil 

about this soil that influence its capacity to grow plants, types are divided into two or more phases. Slope varia- 

Color is usually related to the amount of organic matter, tions, frequency of rock outcrops, degree of erosion, depth 

The darker the surface soil, as a rule, the more organic of soil over the substratum, type of drainage (natural or 

matter it contains. Streaks and spots of gray, yellow, artificial), and presence of excess soluble salts are ex- 

and brown in the lower layers generally indicate poor amples of characteristics that suggest dividing a soil type 

drainage and poor aeration. Colors are given in descrip- m ^° phases. 

five terms, such as dark grayish brown. They are noted The soil phase (or the soil type if it has not been sub- 
by a symbol in the Munsell color chart— a national color divided) is the unit shown on the sod map. It is the unit 
standard. For example, 10YR 4/2 corresponds to the that has the narrowest range of characteristics. Use and 
descriptive term, dark grayish brown. The notation management practices therefore can be specified for the 
10YR 4/2 is a standard color reference in the Munsell SGl1 phase more easily than for soil series or yet broader 
chart. groups that contain more variation. 

Texture, or the content of sand, silt, and clay, is deter- Soil series.— Two or more soil types that differ in 

mined by the way the soil feels when rubbed between the surface texture, but that are otherwise similar m kind, 

fingers, and is later checked by laboratory analysis, thickness, and arrangement of soil layers, are normally 

Texture determines how well soil 'retains moisture, plant designated as a soil series. In a given area, however, 

nutrients, and fertilizer, and whether it is easy or difficult jt frequently happens that a soil series is represented by 

to cultivate. only one soil type. Each series is named lor a place near 

Structure, which is the way the individual soil particles which the soil was first mapped, 
are arranged in larger grains, and the amount of pore As an example of soil classification, consider the Regent 

space between grains, gives us clues to the ease or difficulty senes - Thls senes has olll - v one l . v Pe m Wibaux County, 

with which the soil is penetrated by plant roots and by which 1S subdivided into three phases: 

moisture. Series Tape Phase 

Consistence, or the tendency of the soil to crumble or to [2 to 4 percent slopes. 

stick together, indicates whether it is easy or difficult to Regent.. Silty clay loam.. 5 to 7 percent slopes, 

keep the soil open and porous under cultivation. [8 to 14 P ercent slo P es - 

Other characteristics observed in the course of the field Miscellaneous land types. — Fresh stream deposits, or 

study and considered in classifying the soil include the rough, stony, and severely gullied areas that have little 

following: The depth of the soil over bedrock, over ce- true soil arc not classified' into types and series, but are 

mented or compact layers, or over loose gravel strata; identified by descriptive names. Alluvial land, Badlands, 

the presence of gravel or stone in amounts that will Gravelly terrace remnants, and Rockland are miscel- 

interfere with cultivation; the steepness and pattern of laneous land types in Wibaux County. 

slopes and the degree of erosion; the runoff of surface Soil complex. — When two or more soils are so intricately 

water, drainage through the soil, and occurrence of a high associated in small areas 1 hat it is not feasible to show them 

ground water table; the nature of the underlying rocks or separate l, on lh( , soi i map lh( , v are ma pped together and 

other parent materia from which the soil has developed; ( . ;ilki( , & r^ lex Farland-Harlem complex, to 3 

and the acidity or alkalinity ol the soil as measured bv , . ,■ r , . •, i i 

,i |i ,,.,.' " " percent slopes, is a complex of rarland silt loam and 

t ill II 11' til I LolO. -w--y -I '11 

Simple chemical tests show how acid the soil mav be. tiarlem silt loam. 

The reaction of a soil is its degree of acidity or alkalinity <!n " 1 Sl "' group.— A broad group of sods having common 

expressed mathematically as the pH value.' A pH value internal soil characteristics. Examples are Chestnut, 

of 7 indicates precise neutrality; higher values, alkalinity : Solonetz, and Lithosols. The great soil groups fall within 

To e o tt a t-v , i three orders — the highest category in soil classification. 

5 Soil Survey Staff, soil survey manual. U. S. Dept. Agr. i 

Handbook No. 18, 503 pp., illus. 1951. Ihe three orders are zonal, mtra/.onal, and azonal. 



42 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, INTO. 1 



General Features of Wibaux County 

Climate 

The climate in Wibaux County fluctuates between 
seniiaricl and dry-subhumid. The data from the record 
of the United States Weather Bureau Station at Wibaux 
are fairly representative of the climate throughout the 
county. These data are given in table 4. Certain years, 
selected as typical of "very wet," "good," "moderately 
dry." and "dr}"," are also included in the table. In very 
wet years, the crops may be exceptionally good; in good 
years, they may be above average; in average years, the 
crops are near or below average: and in dry years, they 
are produced only on the best sites. 

At the present time science is not able to predict the 
succession of wet and dry years, but the record shows that 
dry and very dry years can be expected possibly 10 to 20 
percent of the time. When dry years occur in succession, 



they may cause financial disaster on some farms. On the 
other hand, when wet years arrive in a row, and particu- 
larly when prices are satisfactory, they bring a higher 
income to the farmer. 

The average length of the growing season is 111 days; 
that is, the frost-free season lasts from May 25 to Septem- 
ber 13. The growing season may vary considerably: it 
has been as long as 120 days. 

The average total precipitation is 15.52 inches. Up to 
30 percent of the moisture may occur as snow, and the 
snow cover may last from 80 to 120 days. Fog is rare, 
and the sun shines 50 to 70 percent of the time. The 
winds are prevailingly from the west and northwest ; some 
are from the northeast and south. The}' are most severe 
late in winter and early in spring. At times they may 
cause some damage to seeded small grains. Hot winds 
have reduced crop yields in the dry seasons. There may 
be an occasional tornado and hail. Cold waves are 
frequent, and warm chinook winds sometimes occur. 



Table 4.- — Temperature and precipitation at Wibaux Station, Wibaux County, Mont. 

[Elevation, 2,670 feet] 





Temperature 


i 


Precipitation - 


Month 


Average 


Absolute 
maximum 


Absolute 
minimum 


Average 


Total for 

very wet 

year 

(1916) 


Total for 

good vear 
(1948) 


Total for 

moderately 

drv vear 

(1951) 


Total for 

dry vear 

(1952) 


Average 
snowfall 


December- 
Januarv 


° F. 

18. 8 
16. 2 
16. 


° F. 

66 
62 
70 


° F. 

-39 
— 55 
-47 


Inches 
0. 36 
. 46 
.30 


Inches 
1. 00 
. 90 
( 3 ) 


Inches 
0. 16 
. 61 
.48 


Inches 
0. 60 
.20 
. 29 


Inches 
( 3 ) 
.30 
1. 20 


Inches 

4. 4 

5. 7 


February _ 


5. 9 






Winter 


17. 


70 


— 55 


1. 12 


1.90 


1. 25 


1.09 


1. 50 


16. 






March- 


27. 9 
43. 
53. 8 


80 

88 

100 


-31 

-1 

14 


. 57 

1. 31 

2. 16 


.47 

1. 25 

2. 00 


. 20 

.63 

1. 36 


. 14 

. 51 

1. 11 


.40 

( 3 ) 
. 94 


5. 


April . 


2. 8 


May 


. 9 






Spring. _______ 


41. 6 


100 


-31 


4. 04 


3. 72 


2. 19 


1.76 


1. 34 


8. 7 






June 


61. 5 
69. 
66. 6 


102 
109 
110 


24 
32 
26 


4. 10 
2. 04 

1. 47 


6. 45 
2. 19 
2.90 


3. 58 

7. 47 
. 42 


1.81 

2. 07 

1. 94 


1. 54 
1. 77 
1. 32 


. 1 


July 


( 3 ) 











Summer _______ 


65. 7 


110 


24 


7. 61 


11. 54 


11. 47 


5. 82 


4. 63 


. 1 






September 


56. 2 
44. S 
30. 


106 

1)1 
75 


7 
-16 
-27 


1.37 

. 74 
. 64 


2. 65 

1. 20 

. 30 


( 3 ) 
. 10 
1. 05 


1. 64 
. 73 
.36 


. 70 

( 3 ) 
. 33 


. 1 


October 


3 2 


November.. . _ 


3. 9 






Fall 


43. 7 


106 


-27 


2. 75 


4. 15 


1. 15 


2. 73 


1. 03 


7 2 






Y<;ir _ .. 


42. 


110 


— 55 


15. 52 


21. 31 


16. 06 


11. 40 


8.50 


32 







1 Average temperature based on a 18-year record, through 1955; 
highest and lowesl temperatures on a 26-year record, through 1952. 



2 Average precipitation based on a 20-year record, through 1055: 
wettest and driest years based on a 18-year record, in the period 
1894-1955; snowfall, based on a 21-year record, through 1952. 

3 Trace. 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



i:; 



January, February, and March are cold and dry, with 
less than an inch of precipitation. April and Ma\ warm 
the country and bring an inch or two of precipitation. 
Through the last of May and including June, the rains 
usually come. The weather is warm and humid. July 
is hot with less moisture. August and September have 
even less rainfall, and the atmosphere is warm and dry. 
October is mild and dry. In November, the temperature 
gradually falls and the precipitation drops to less than an 
inch. By December it is cold and drj 7 again. 



1900 and 1914, when homesteaders came into the area 
seeking farms. Before 1900 almost all of the land was 
used as cattle range. In L935 there were 468 farms, and 
only 200 by 195-4. With the adoption of better farming 

methods and the introduction of mechanized farming, the 
population has gradually decreased and the size of the 
farms has increased. The population in the county was 
1,907 in 1950, of which 739 persons lived in Wibaux. 
There were 128 farms that year of 1,000 acres or more in 
size. Most of the inhabitants are engaged in agriculture. 



Transportation 

United States Highway No. 10 passes through the 
central part of the county from east to west. It prac- 
tically parallels the main line of the Northern Pacific 
Railway. Improved gravel roads run north and south of 
Wibaux, and several graded county highways provide 
all-weather roads. Near Carlyle a branch line of the 
Northern Pacific crosses the southeast corner. 



Physiography and Drainage 

The main drainage systems in Wibaux County, as well 
as the geological formations, are indicated in figure 18. 
Beaver Creek is the mam drainage system. Other creeks 
flow in a northerly direction to the Yellowstone River, 
which bounds the northwest corner of the county. 

Wibaux County covers a part of the northern Great 
Plains. It is dissected by many down-cutting streams. 
Blue Mountain, north of Wibaux, has an elevation of 
more than 3,000 feet. It is capped with sandstone. 

During glacial ages one or more sheets moved up the 
valley of the Yellowstone River and near Smith Creek. 
The ice sheets deposited a mantle of thin drift on the far 
northern parts of the count}-. The occurrence of a high 
water gap between Cottonwood and Smith Creeks shows 
that glacial waters moved to the east along the front of 
the ice sheet. The Cabin Creek anticline is in the south- 
western part of the county. Oil and gas wells are located 
in this area. 

The main ground-water supplies are obtained locally 
from shallow wells in valley alluvium. Deep wells tap 
coarse strata and sandstone of the Fort Union, Hell Creek. 
and Fox Hills formations. 



Settlement 

Wibaux County was established by subdividing Dawson 
County in 1914. It is bounded by Dawson and Prairie 
Counties on the west, by Fallon County on the south, b} T 
Richland County on the north, and on the east by North 
Dakota. It was named for Pierre Wibaux, who had large 
cattle interests in the area in the 1880's and 1890's. 
Wibaux is the county seat. 

The general settlement of the county took place between 



Agriculture 

Agriculture in the county consists principally of growing 
wheat as a cash crop and producing livestock for sale. 
Much of the hay and grain grown locally is fed to livestock. 

Some of the early settlers planted wheat on shallow and 
steep soils that should have been left in pasture. Erosion 
and low productivity have gradually forced the abandon- 
ment of these areas. Many such areas have been planted 
to permanenl grass. 

At the time of the survey, 28 percent of the county was 
in cropland, idle land, and seeded grassland; 70 percent 
was in pasture and rangeland ; and 2 percent was in brush, 
trees, farmsteads, and urban areas. A considerable acre- 
age that is suitable for limited or occasional cultivation 
was then used for crops. Some areas not suited to tillage 
were farmed. 

Some land in pasture and range that could be used for 
crop is not cultivated because of isolated position and 
rough terrain. 

The land resources of Wibaux County have been used 
nearly to their maximum capability. In planning on a 
long-time range use, the tendenc}' is to decrease the acreage 
used for cultivation and to increase that seeded to grasses. 



Land use and types of farms 

The total area of Wibaux County is 568,960 acres. 
The total area in farms in 1954 was 526,623 acres. The 
farmland is distributed as follows: Cropland harvested. 
104,556 acres; cropland used only for pasture, 3,524 acres: 
cropland, not harvested and not pastured, 51,839 acres; 
woodland pastured, 3 acres; other pasture (not cropland 
and not woodland), 362,078 acres; and other land (house 
lots, roads, etc.), 4,623 acres. The average size of farms 
in the county increased from 634 acres in 1920 to about 
1,815 in 1954. Land owned by public agencies, including 
Badlands, occupies approximately 75,000 acres. Some 
of the acreage is included in farms. 

In 1954, the farms in the county were classified accord- 
ing to major sources of income as follows: 

Type of farm : 

1 ash-grain 193 

Livestock 73 

General 9 

Miscellaneous and unclassified 6 



44 



SOIL SURVEY SERIES 1943, XO. 1 



Livestock 

The number of livestock in the count}' in stated years is 
given in table 5. 

Table 5. — Number of livestock on farms and ranches 



Table 6. — Acreage of the major crops 



Livestock 



1949 



No mber 


Xumber 


7, 163 


5, 249 


8, 208 


8, 382 


2, 446 


5,298 


5, 255 


1, 636 


124 


47 



Chickens sold 

Cattle and calves sold alive 
Sheep and lambs sold alive . 

Hogs and pigs sold alive 

Horses and mules sold alive 



Crops 

Spring wheat is the principal crop, but corn, barley, 
oats, and hay are grown extensively. The acreages of the 
principal crops are given in table 6. 



Crop 



Corn for all purposes _. 

Winter wheat threshed or com.' 

bined 

Spring wheat threshed or com 

bined 

Oats threshed or combined 

Oats cut for feeding 

Barley threshed or combined. _. 

Flax threshed or combined 

Alfalfa cut for hay 

Clover or timothy cut for hay_. 

Small grain cut for hay 

Wild hay cut 

Other hav cut 



1929 


1939 


1949 


Acres 


Acres 


Acres 


4, 148 


12, 434 


9, 047 


1, 840 


4, 114 


325 


65, 930 


38, 175 


57, 682 


5, 592 


5, 744 


2, 512 


232 


268 


1, 155 


7, 715 


6, 767 


4, 370 


6. 478 


1, 170 


1, 728 


989 


377 


3 911 


96 


(') 


3 


5,611 


1,417 


6, 754 


7, 186 


5,492 


10, 871 


1, 060 


4, 155 


1, 251 



1 Not reported. 

2 Includes alfalfa mixtures. 

3 Includes mixtures of clover and grasses. 



1954 



Acres 
11,925 

604 

55, 720 
5. 037 

C 1 ) 
7,011 

C 1 ) 
2 2, 433 
3 544 

3, 704 
8, 735 

4. 232 



O 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



WIBAUX CC' 



SYMBOL 
Aa 
Ab 
Ac 

Ba 

Bb 

Be 

Bd . 

Be 

Bg 

Bh 

Bk 

Ca 

Cb 

Cc 

Cd 

Ce 

Cg 

Ch 

Ck 

Cm 

Cn 

Co 

Cp 

Fa 
Fb 
Fc 
Fd 
Fe 

Ga 
Gb 
Gc 
Gd 

La 

Ma 
Mb 
Mc 
Md 
Me 
Mg 
Mh 
Mk 
Mm 
Mn 
Mo 
Mp 

Pa 

Ra 
Rb 
Re 
Rd 
Re 
Rg 
Rh 
Rk 

Sa 
Sb 
Sc 

Va 
Vb 
Vc 
Vd 
Ve 

Wa 
Wb 
Wc 
Wd 

Za 



SOILS LEGEND 



NAME 
Alluvial land 

Arnegard silt loam, 0-2 percent slopes 
Arnegard silt loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Badlands 

Bainville silt loam, 6-9 percent slopes 
Bainville silt loam, 10-14 percent slopes 
Bainville silt loam, 15-40 percent slopes 
Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15-30 percent slopes 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 6-14 percent slopes 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 15-40 percent slopes 
Bainville-Wibaux complex, 15-40 percent slopes 

Chama silt loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Chama stony silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 
Chama stony silt loam, 10-30 percent slopes 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10-14 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 4-9 percent slopes 
Cheyenne loam, 0-5 percent slopes 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 4-7 percent slopes 

Farland silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Farland-Harlem complex, 0-3 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 4-9 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 10-14 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 15-40 percent slopes 

Glendive fine sandy loam, 2-6 percent slopes 
Grail silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Grail silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Gravelly terrace remnants, 5-40 percent slopes 

Lismas clay-shale outcrop, 20-60 percent slopes 

McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, 0-1 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 3-7 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 8-11 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 12-30 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3-7 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8-11 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12-15 percent slopes 
Moline clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Moline clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Morton silt loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Morton-Arnegard silt loams, 0-3 percent slopes 
Morton-Chama silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 

Pierre-Lismas clays, 15-40 percent slopes 

Regent silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 8-14 percent slopes 
Rhoades clay loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 8-11 percent slopes 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 12-20 percent slopes 
Rockland-Bainville complex, 15-50 percent slopes 
Rockland-Flasher complex, 15-50 percent slopes 

Savage silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Savage-Wade complex, 0-3 percent slopes 
Searing loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Valentine fine sand, 5-15 percent slopes 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 8-14 percent slopes 
Vebar-Flasher complex, 3-9 percent slopes 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, 0-3 percent slopes 

Wade silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Wibaux stony loam, 10-40 percent slopes 
Williams silt loam, 2-5 percent slopes 
Williams silt loam, 6-14 percent slopes 

Zahl loam, 8-30 percent slopes 



WORKS AND 




Roads 
Good motor 




Poor motor 




Trail 


J 


Marker, U. S. ' 


Railroads 




Single track 




Multiple track 


\ 


Abandoned 


i 
1 


Bridges and crossings 


* 


Road 




Trail, foot 




Railroad 


, 


Ferry 


| 






Ford 




Grade 




R. R. over 




R. R. under 




Tunnel s. 


Buildings 




School 




• 




Church 




Station 




Mine and Quarry 




Shaft . 








Prospect 




Pits, gravel or other 




Power line 








Cemetery J 




Dam 




Levee 1 




Tank 








Oil well J 





Windmill 

Canal lock (point upstream I 



Soils surveyed 1940-43 by R. C. McConnell, D. R. Cawlfield, and 

W. A. Buchanan, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Correlation by B. H. Williams, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



INDEX TO MAP SHEETS 

WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



T. 19 N. 

MC KENZIE 
COUNTY 




104°20 / 

R. 59 E. 



104° 10' 
R. 60 E. 



FALLON COUNTY 



1UNTY, MONTANA 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



STRUCTURES 



H 1 1 H H 



H H ii H 



-> 



I I 1 I 



II II 



=*= === = =*= 



inn" 








CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 

National or state ^_^_ _ 

County ___ — 

Township, civil 

U. S _ 

Section 

City (corporate) _ 

Reservation _ 

Land grant _ 

DRAINAGE 
Streams 

Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with ... . -^ 

tillage implements '-"'' 

CANAL 

Canals and ditches 

DITCH 

Lakes and ponds 

Perennial <-■ ' 

Intermittent * 

Wells o ♦ flowing 

V \ , 

Springs s- 

\\i/> \\/// _ .\W, 

Marsh ^iT 7i7 ~ 

Wet spot * 

RELIEF 
Escarpments 

Bedrock 

Other 

Prominent peaks '"' 

Depressions 

Large Small 

Crossable with tillage r „,„, 

implements ^"£ 

Not crossable with tillage »nr^ 

implements f.^3 

Contains water most of •?'££<• 

the time %■£% 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil type outline 

and symbol 

Gravel 

Stones 

Rock outcrops 

Chert fragments 

Clay spot 

Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 



Made land 

Covered gravel pit 

Erosion 
Uneroded spot 

Sheet, moderate 

Sheet, severe 

Gully, moderate 

Gully, severe 

Sheet and gully, moderate 

Wind, moderate 

Wind, severe 

Blowout 

Wind hummock 

Overblown soil .. 



Gullies 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 



Not crossable with tillage 
implements 



Areas of alkali and salts 

Strong , 

Moderate 

Slight 

Free of toxic effect ... 
Sample location 
Saline spot 



c£> 










g 

09 






(\s\j\j~\s\r\j 




Soil map constructed 1957 by Cartographic Division, 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1946 
aerial photographs. Controlled mosaic based on 
polyconic projection, 1927 North American datum 



© 



WIBAUX COUNTY, IV 



N 




2 Miles 

i Scale 1:316: 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



SYMBOL 
Aa 
Ab 
Ac 

Ba 
Bb 
Be 
Bd 
Be 
Bg 
Bh 
Bk 

Ca 

Cb 

Cc 

Cd 

Ce 

Cg 

Ch 

Ck 

Cm 

Cn 

Co 

Cp 

Fa 
Fb 
Fc 
Fd 
Fe 

Ga 
Gb 
Gc 
Gd 

La 

Ma 

Mb 

Mc 

Md 

Me 

Mg 

Mh 

Mk 

Mm 

Mn 

Mo 

Mp 

Pa 

Ra 
Rb 
Re 
Rd 
Re 
Rg 
Rh 
Rk 

Sa 
Sb 
Sc 

Va 
Vb 
Vc 
Vd 
Ve 

Wa 
Wb 
We 
Wd 

Za 



SOILS LEGEND 



NAME 

Alluvial land 

Arnegard silt loam, 0-2 percent slopes 

Arnegard silt loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Badlands 

Bainville silt loam, 6-9 percent slopes 
Bainville silt loam, 10-14 percent slopes 
Bainville silt loam, 15-40 percent slopes 
Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15-30 percent slopes 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 6-14 percent slopes 
Bainville-Flasher complex, 15-40 percent slopes 
Bainville-Wibaux complex, 15-40 percent slopes 

Chama silt, loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Chama stony silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 
Chama stony silt loam, 10-30 percent slopes 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 
Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10-14 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 
Cherry silt loam, saline, 4-9 percent slopes 
Cheyenne loam, 0-5 percent slopes 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 0-3 percent slopes 
Cushman loam, deep variant, 4-7 percent slopes 

Farland silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Farland-Harlem complex, 0-3 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 4-9 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 10-14 percent slopes 
Flasher loamy fine sand, 15-40 percent slopes 

Glendive fine sandy loam, 2-6 percent slopes 
Grail silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Grail silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Gravelly terrace remnants, 5-40 percent slopes 

Lismas clay-shale outcrop, 20-60 percent slopes 

McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, 0-1 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 3-7 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 8-11 percent slopes 
Midway-Moreau complex, 12-30 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3-7 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8-11 percent slopes 
Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12-15 percent slopes 
Moline clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Moline clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Morton silt loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Morton-Arnegard silt loams, 0-3 percent slopes 
Morton-Chama silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 

Pierre-Lismas clays, 15-40 percent slopes 

Regent silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 
Regent silty clay loam, 8-14 percent slopes 
Rhoades clay loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 8-11 percent slopes 
Rhoades-Moline complex, 12-20 percent slopes 
Rockland-Bainville complex, 15-50 percent slopes 
Rockland-Flasher complex, 15-50 percent slopes 

Savage silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Savage-Wade complex, 0-3 percent slopes 
Searing loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Valentine fine sand, 5-15 percent slopes 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 4-7 percent slopes 
Vebar fine sandy loam, 8-14 percent slopes 
Vebar-Flasher complex, 3-9 percent slopes 
Vebar-Timmer fine sandy loams, 0-3 percent slopes 

Wade silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 
Wibaux stony loam, 10-40 percent slopes 
Williams silt loam, 2-5 percent slopes 
Williams silt loam, 6-14 percent slopes 

Zahl loam, 8-30 percent slopes 



Soils surveyed 1940-43 by R. C. McConnell, D. R. Cawlfield, and 

W. A. Buchanan, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Correlation by B. H. Williams, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



WORKS AND STRUCTURES 
Roads 
Good motor — 



Poor motor 



Trail 

Marker, U. S. \ 
Railroads 

Single track ... 



H 1 h 



Multiple track — H H H h H- 

Abandoned _. _. _■ . i_ 



Bridges and crossings 

Road 

Trail, foot 

Railroad 

Ferry 

Ford 

Grade 

R. R. over 

R. R. under 

Tunnel 

Buildings 

School 

Church 

Station 




=*= = = = = =*F 



H 1- 



Mine and Quarry 

Shaft 

Dump 

Prospect 



X 






Pits, gravel or other 
Power line 



K 



Pipeline 

Cemetery 

Dam 

Levee 

Tank 




i i i 1 1 i i i 1 1 i i i i i i 



Oil well 

Windmill 

Canal lock (point upstream) 



CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 



National or state 

County 

Township, civil 

U. S 

Section 

City (corporate) 

Reservation 

Land grant 







CANAL 



DITCH 



CT3 



v .• 




DRAINAGE 
Streams 

Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable witn 

tillage implements 

Canals and ditches 

Lakes and ponds 

Perennial 

Intermittent 

Wells 

Springs 

Marsh 

Wet spot * 

RELIEF 
Escarpments 

VVVVVVVVVVVVYVVVVvy,. 

Bedrock 

other tui""""mrrrrrmrmmmi 

Prominent peaks *r<* 

Depressions 

Large Small 

Crossable with tillage ^wv 

implements ^vvwi^ <> 

Not crossable with tillage »n^ 

implements ^^J} 

Contains water most of fMs 

the time ^C£ ♦ 



\\ll, \\l/f _ >\U 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil type outline 

and symbol 

Gravel 

Stones 

Rock outcrops 

Chert fragments 

Clay spot 

Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 

Made land 

Covered gravel pit , 

Erosion 

Uneroded spot 

Sheet, moderate 

Sheet, severe 

Gully, moderate 

Gully, severe 

Sheet and gully, moderate 

Wind, moderate 

Wind, severe 

Blowout 

Wind hummock 

Overblown soil 

Gullies 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with tillage 
implements 








9 
sff 



-£V 



-£\. 



AA f V/Vviij 



rLr\s\s\r\s\j 



Areas of alkali and salts 

Strong V__- 

Moderate x — — <s 

slight ^ -r — 

Free of toxic effect 

Sample location • 26 

Saline spot + 



Soil map constructed 1957 by Cartographic Division 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1946 
aerial photographs. Controlled mosaic based on 
polyconic projection, 1927 North American datum. 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



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N 

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2 Miles 

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5 000 

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(Sheet 6) 



WIBAUX COUNTY, N 




Scale 1: 31681. 



(Sheet 3) 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 

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(Sheet 13) R. 59 E.i R. 60 E. 



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WIBAUX COUNTY, W 



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(Sheet 15) 



R. 58 E , R. 59 E 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 




R. 59 E. i R. 60 E 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



(Sheet 16) R. 60 E. I R. 61 E. 




IONTANA 

R. 56 E. R. 57 E 



DAWSON COUNTY 




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(Sheet 18) 



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(Sheet 22) 




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(Sheet 20) 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



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(Sheet 24) 



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Scale 1:3166. 



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R. 59 E. . R. 60 E. 

(7 II I! 




WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



R. 61 E. 



(Sheet 23) 







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(Sheet 31) 



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INDEX TO IS 
WIBAUX GOUN 



1 1 
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WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



R. 59 E. f R. 60 E. 




WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



R. 60 E. | R. 61 E 




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1AP SHEETS 
,l rY, MONTANA 



v 2 3 4 5 MILES 
d I I I 



1HLAND COUNTY 



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19 N. 



MC KENZIE 
COUNTY 



T. 18N. 




INDEX TO MAP SHEETS 

WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



10 1 2 3 4 5 MILES 
J I L 



T. 19 N. 

MC KENZIE 
COUNTY 




T. 14 N. 



T. 13 N. 



T. 12 N. 



104°20' 

R. 59 E. 



104 p 10' 
R. 60 E. 



T. 11 N. 



46°40 / 



T. 10 N. 



FALLON COUNTY 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 



WORKS AND STRUCTURES 



Roads 
Good motor 
Poor motor 



Trail 

Marker, U. S. 
Railroads 
Single track 
Multiple track 
Abandoned 



-k 1 1 1 H 



-U H H- 



Bridges and crossings 

Road 

Trail, foot 

Railroad 

Ferry 

Ford 

Grade 

R. R. over 

R. R. under 

Tunnel 

Buildings 

School 

Church 

Station 

Mine and Quarry 

Shaft 

Dump 

Prospect 

Pits, gravel or other 
Power line 




^=== = =^ 



H h 



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Pipeline 

Cemetery 

Dam 



Levee 



Tank 



Oil well 




i i i i i i i i i i 1 1 i i i i i ■ ' 



Windmill 

Canal lock (point upstream) 



=^= 



Soils surveyed 1940-43 by R. C. McConnell, D. R. Cawifield, and 

W. A. Buchanan, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

Correlation by B. H. Williams, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 

BOUNDARIES 



National or state 

County 

Township, civil . 

U. S 

Section 

City (corporate) 

Reservation 

Land grant 



I 




CANAL 



DITCH 



OD 



v y 




DRAINAGE 
Streams 

Perennial 

Intermittent, unclass 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with 

tillage implements 

Canals and ditches 

Lakes and ponds 

Perennial 

Intermittent 

Wells 

Springs 

Marsh 

Wet spot 



RELIEF 
Escarpments 

vvvvvvvvvvvwvvvvv Vv 

Bedrock 

Other 

\\ 

Prominent peaks A,y 

Depressions . e~,-,n 

Large Small 

Crossable with tillage ^ v,r » 

imolements ^ vW ' iV ° 

Not crossable with tillage £ v \ § 

implements ^u>? 

Contains water most of ^rv* 

the time ^TK' 



■Mi, \\i// _ ^i// 



±u 



SOIL SURVEY DATA 



Soil type outline 

and symbol 

Gravel 

Stones 

Rock outcrops 

Chert fragments 

Clay spot 

Sand spot 

Gumbo or scabby spot 

Made land 

Covered gravel pit 

Erosion 

Uneroded spot 

Sheet, moderate 

Sheet, severe 

Gully, moderate 

Gully, severe 

Sheet and gully, moderate 

Wind, moderate 

Wind, severe 

Blowout 

Wind hummock 

Overblown soil 

Gullies 

Crossable with tillage 
implements 

Not crossable with tillage 
implements 











"V" 



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AA"/iA"J 



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Areas of alkali and salts 

Strong ^ IZXL 

CJL.J 

Moderate , . 

Slight — -"^ 

Free of toxic effect ' 

Sample location * 

Saline spot 



SOILS LEGEND 



SYMBOL NAME 

Aa Alluvial land 

Ab Arnegard silt loam, 0-2 percent slopes 

Ac Arnegard silt loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Ba Badlands 

Bb Bainville silt loam, 6-9 percent slopes 

Be Bainville silt loam, 10-14 percent slopes 

Bd Bainville silt loam, 15-40 percent slopes 

Be Bainville-Chama silt loams, 15-30 percent slopes 

Bg Bainville-Flasher complex, 6-14 percent slopes 

Bh Bainville-Flasher complex, 15-40 percent slopes 

Bk Bainville-Wibaux complex, 15-40 percent slopes 

Ca Chama silt loam, 4-7 percent slopes 

Cb Chama stony silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 

Cc Chama stony silt loam, 10-30 percent slopes 

Cd Chama-Bainville silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 

Ce Chama-Bainville silt loams, 10-14 percent slopes 

Cg Cherry silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 

Ch Cherry silt loam, saline, 0-3 percent slopes 

Ck Cherry silt loam, 4-9 percent slopes 

Cm Cherry silt loam, saline, 4-9 percent slopes 

Cn Cheyenne loam, 0-5 percent slopes 

Co Cushman loam, deep variant, 0-3 percent slopes 

Cp Cushman loam, deep variant, 4-7 percent slopes 

Fa Farland silt loam, 0-3 percent slopes 

Fb Farland-Harlem complex, 0-3 percent slopes 

Fc Flasher loamy fine sand, 4-9 percent slopes 

Fd Flasher loamy fine sand, 10-14 percent slopes 

Fe Flasher loamy fine sand, 15-40 percent slopes 

Ga Glendive fine sandy loam, 2-6 percent slopes 

Gb Grail silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 

Gc Grail silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 

Gd Gravelly terrace remnants, 5-40 percent slopes 

La Lismas clay-shale outcrop, 20-60 percent slopes 

Ma McKenzie-Hoven silty clays, 0-1 percent slopes 

Mb Midway-Moreau complex, 3-7 percent slopes 

Mc Midway-Moreau complex, 8-11 percent slopes 

Md Midway-Moreau complex, 12-30 percent slopes 

Me Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 3-7 percent slopes 

Mg Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 8-11 percent slopes 

Mh Midway-Regent silty clay loams, 12-15 percent slopes 

Mk Moline clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 

Mm Moline clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 

Mn Morton silt loam, 4-7 percent slopes 

Mo Morton-Arnegard silt loams, 0-3 percent slopes 

Mp Morton-Chama silt loams, 4-9 percent slopes 

Pa Pierre-Lismas clays, 15-40 percent slopes 

Ra Regent silty clay loam, 2-4 percent slopes 

Rb Regent silty clay loam, 5-7 percent slopes 

Re Regent silty clay loam, 8-14 percent slopes 

Rd Rhoades clay loam, 4-7 percent slopes 

Re Rhoades-Moline complex, 8-11 percent slopes 

Rg Rhoades-Moline complex, 12-20 percent slopes 

Rh Rockland-Bainville complex, 15-50 percent slopes 

Rk Rockland-Flasher complex, 15-50 percent slopes 

Sa Savage silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 

Sb Savage-Wade complex, 0-3 percent slopes 

Sc Searing loam, 3-7 percent slopes 

Va Valentine fine sand, 5-15 percent slopes 

Vb Vebar fine sandy loam, 4-7 percent slopes 

Vc Vebar fine sandy loam, 8-14 percent slopes 

Vd Vebar-Flasher complex, 3-9 percent slopes 

Ve Vebar-Timmer fine s^ndy loams, 0-3 percent slopes 

Wa Wade silty clay loam, 0-3 percent slopes 

Wb Wibaux stony loam, 10-40 percent slopes 

Wc Williams silt loam, 2-5 percent slopes 

Wd Williams silt loam, 6-14 percent slopes 

Za Zahl loam, 8-30 percent slopes 



Soil map constructed 1957 by Cartographic Division 
Soil Conservation Service, USDA, from 1946 
aerial photographs. Controlled mosaic based on 
polyconic projection, 1927 North American datum. 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 

SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 



1 1 


Rhoades- Flasher- Cush man 






1 2 


Pierre- Lismas-Rhoades-Moline 






1 3 


Badlands- Bainville-Flasher- Midway 






1 4 


Moreau- Mid way- Regent 






1 * 


Fa rland- Savage- Harlem 






1 6 


Flasher-Vebar 






7 


Bainville-C ha ma -Flasher 






1 8 


Bainville-Wibaux-Chama 






1 9 


Morton-Arnegard-Chama 






1 10 


Wibaux-Morton-Chama-Bainville-Searing 






1 n 


Chama-Morton-Bainville-Flasher 




FALLON COUNTY 



WIBAUX COUNTY, MONTANA 



SOIL ASSOCIATIONS 



_1 Rhoades- Flasher-Cushman 

Pierre-Lismas-Rhoades-Moline 
Badlands-Bainville-Flasher-Midway 



4 Moreau-Midway-Regent 

Fa rland- Savage- Harlem 

Flasher-Vebar 

Bainville-Chama-Flasher 

Bainville-Wibaux-Chama 

Morton-Arnegard-Chama 



10 Wibaux-Morton-Chama-Bainville-Searing 



11 Charna-Morton-Bainville-Flasher 







FALLON COUNTY